Reproduction of garden ivy
Claiming the title of garden classics, ivy rightfully occupies a leading position in the list of unpretentious garden vines. Versatile and resilient, fast-growing and maintenance-free, garden ivy is suitable for a wide range of tasks. With the help of ivy they camouflage and decorate, create green walls, green the facades, and beat up objects of small architecture. And not the last factor in the prevalence and unfading popularity of ivy is the ease of its reproduction. Easy to cut and root, ivy allows you to get seedlings without much cost and effort.
Ivy is one of the garden plants that hardly needs to be introduced. The hallmark of the genus Ivy (Hedera), the most common plant has been and remains ivy (Hedera helix) and its many decorative varieties, characterized by the shape, size and color of the leaf blades. Creeping-climbing evergreen vine with flexible, long, branching, rooting in nodes and with aerial roots shoots is a plant, the size of which is limited only by its use. If ivy is given free rein, it can grow to more than a dozen meters. But with proper formation and limitation, they will surprise with compactness and modest size. Three- or five-lobed leaves, located on the shoots alternately on long stalks, are conquered by a leathery-glossy texture, dark colors, light veins and a heart-shaped base. Flowering, starting with ivy only at a respectable age, is not ordinary-looking, with small yellowish flowers in umbrellas, the fruits are round black peas.
Ivy in landscape design is used to create screens and screens, green carpets, landscaping the facade, decorating small architecture objects, creating curly accents, masking, filling, underlining ... Natural talents that allow ivy to conquer new heights lie in the peculiarities of the plant structure. Ivy easily climbs up, clings to supports or spreads on the ground. This is equally a groundcover, and a liana, a plant for open soil and a potted plant, the main or complementary. The amazing "obedience" of ivy and its versatility are the result of endurance and vitality. It not only adapts well to any conditions and any basis that it should entwine, but also easily rooted and “fixed”. This is his ability and is used in reproduction: flexible shoots that are easily rooted in nodes are just as easy to take root during reproduction.
Self-propagation of ivy is a very simple task. When landscaping large areas or objects, it is enough to purchase one or two bushes of adult plants, choosing varieties for endurance, color, decorative characteristics for a specific design task. From the base bushes, you can quickly grow a large number of ivy seedlings. Of course, you will have to wait several years until they reach a sufficient size, but then the costs of landscaping will be minimal.
For ivies, vegetative methods are preferred. Mostly in landscape design today they use varietal plants that do not retain their characteristics when grown from seeds. It is not possible to propagate fashionable variegated or original ivy seeds. In addition, unlike growing from seeds, any method of vegetative propagation can significantly reduce the process of achieving the desired goal, maximum decorativeness. Advantages in speed and simplicity are the main arguments in favor of cuttings and related propagation methods.
For garden ivies, three breeding methods are used:
- Rooting layers.
- Separation of old bushes.
Old, overgrown, turned into whole colonies ivy, part of the shoots of which are rooted and gave rise, can be divided. It is not necessary to dig out the whole plant for this: it is enough to separate part of the plants along the perimeter and use them as independent seedlings.
With any method of reproduction, you should adhere to the general rules:
- For rooting and cuttings, and layering in ivy choose annuals, in extreme cases - biennial shoots.
- When choosing twigs, it is worth examining them carefully: semi-lignified, strong shoots with visible aerial roots or their primordia give faster results than very young twigs.
- Reproduction of ivy is best done in spring or in the first half of summer.
Young ivy obtained independently, can be planted in a permanent place in early autumn and spring. For the middle lane, spring planting is preferable, because in this case there is much less risk of losing plants in extreme weather, more time to adapt before the first winter.
Cuttings - the main method of ivy propagation
Ivy branches are so easily rooted that when grown in a room culture, rooting of cuttings is often carried out simply in water. In most cases, more traditional methods are used for garden ivy, but it is precisely due to the simplicity of rooting that cuttings are the main method. Scourges of creepers take root within a few weeks, plants grow rapidly.
For ivy cuttings, it is best to use annual young shoots. Both apical and stem cuttings will do. The apical cuttings should not be too small: the tops of the branches from 10 to 20 cm long are cut at an angle (between leaf nodes). On the cuttings, the lower two pairs of leaves are removed. When using stem stalks, the whole shoot is separated. For this method of propagation, young branches with 8-10 leaves are used.
You can root ivy cuttings:
- in water or a solution of rooting stimulants;
- in a mixture of peat and sand;
- in a light substrate with a high content of sand.
At the same time, rooting in containers or containers is not the only option. Ivy can be propagated in a hotbed or a mini-greenhouse in open soil.
Shelter with a cap, greenhouse conditions for ivies are not necessary at all. Provided that a stable soil moisture is maintained, the cuttings of this plant can be rooted without additional difficulties. Covering the container with a glass or film cap speeds up rooting, but no more. Any temperature will be suitable for rooting cuttings: cuttings take root both in heat and in heat, when the indicators exceed 15-16 degrees. The rooting process can be accelerated by treatment with growth stimulants. But it is not considered a mandatory procedure.
The apical cuttings are planted in the soil, dug by 1/3 of the height to the first node with leaves. On average, rooting in the substrate takes from 2 weeks to 1.5 months, plants after rooting can be planted in a permanent place and without growing in containers or seedlings.
The stem cuttings are laid horizontally on the surface of the substrate, pressing the shoots to a depth of about 1.5 - 2 cm (or laying them in a groove) and leaving the leaves on the surface. You can immediately cut the stem into cuttings with one leaf node (about 10 cm long), but usually the shoot is left intact. Rooting occurs within 1 - 2 weeks, after which the tip of the shoot starts to grow. After the signs of the resumption of growth, there is no need to rush to cut the stem: plants are separated only after 2 weeks. The stem is carefully removed from the substrate and cut into separate cuttings or independent plants, separating the rooted leaf nodes.
Rooted cuttings, especially stem ones, are rarely immediately transferred to a permanent place: they can be planted either in a container or on a separate bed for growing, simplifying the process of maintaining stable soil moisture. They are planted in a permanent place at the end of summer or at the beginning of autumn, giving enough time for rooting before the arrival of winter and protecting by mulching from severe frosts. But it is better to wait until spring and grow ivy as a container culture or shelter in the garden, giving plants more time to grow roots before the first wintering.
Rooting ivy layering
Like other creepers, ivy can be easily propagated by layering. The scourges lying on the soil themselves are able to take root. But you can stimulate this process and get strong independent plants. The method of rooting layering is most popular when using ivy as a groundcover. But it is suitable for those who need to get not too many new plants.
There is nothing complicated in the process of rooting shoots:
- Strong, flexible shoots of ivy from below (for growing vertically) and around the perimeter (for growing ivy horizontally) are laid in a small trench. Usually, long, powerful shoots are chosen to root layering. Small cuts on the underside of the twigs accelerate rooting.
- Sprigs are fixed in soil with a bracket and sprinkled on top with a nutrient substrate.
- They carry out abundant watering and subsequently regularly water the soil to maintain stable moisture.
After rooting the shoots, there is no need to rush to planting layering. In early autumn or next spring, young ivy is separated as independent bushes and planted in a permanent place.
If the ivy has sufficiently long branches, then they can be fixed in the soil in waves, rooting several layers at once from one lash.
Young ivy care
To achieve ivy maximum decorativeness have to be patient. This plant does not start rapid growth immediately, and several years before the decorative task assigned to the vine is completed, you will have to wait. But with the help of proper care, ensuring optimal conditions, the waiting period can be shortened.
The conditions for ivy need to be carefully selected. They are hardy, adapt well. But if the task is quick landscaping, then it is worth choosing places protected from drafts and wind. Breathable, fertile, deeply developed, containing organic matter and moisture-absorbing soil - one of the conditions for the rapid growth of ivies.
In order for ivy to quickly reach the desired size, first of all, you need to take care of stable soil moisture. Regular watering in a drought, spraying leaves during particularly hot periods will help young plants not to suffer from extreme summer conditions and more quickly grow both roots and vegetative mass. During the season, the soil is gently loosened, preventing it from crusting, but without touching the roots and shoots of ivy. A protective shelter in the first winter in the form of a simple layer of mulch will reduce problems with thaws and temperature extremes. Ivy will not refuse a permanent mulching layer, which will protect the root system from overheating and stabilize the conditions for their development.