Flower garden in the realm of shadow
Any shaded area, except complete darkness, can be turned into a beautiful flower garden or an exquisite border. Correctly selected shade-loving shrubs, perennials, and bulbs will help in this. In such a shady corner it is pleasant to relax on a hot summer day, sheltered from the scorching sun, admiring the greenery and muted colors.
Light and shadow
Illumination / shading of a garden area is determined by the duration and intensity of the sunlight that it receives. At the same time, the degree of illumination of the same place varies depending on the season: factors such as the height of the sun, the duration of daylight hours, the presence of leaves on deciduous trees, etc.
The duration of daylight hours is crucial for the flowering of some plants: long day plants (cloves, clover) require more than 12 hours of light per day for flowering, and short day plants (poinsettia, chrysanthemums) require less than 12 hours of light per day. Plants have the ability to accumulate light, so there is also the concept of the annual amount of light received by the plant.
In gardening sources, recommendations for lighting for a particular plant mean the following:
- Direct sunlight - more than 3 hours of direct midday sun per day
- Penumbra - about 3 hours of direct sun in the morning or evening with shading in the middle of the day, or good illumination without direct sun throughout the day
- Shade, full shadow - about 3 hours of direct daylight in the middle of the day and limited illumination the rest of the time
- Scattered sunlight - sunlight that penetrates throughout the day through the sparse foliage of trees or other partial obstacle.
What you need to know about the flower garden in the shade
The shadow is different. The shadow falling from the house is one kind of shadow, the shadow under coniferous trees is another, and under the deciduous trees is the third. A dense dense shadow, as a rule, is formed under massive crowns of trees, under the canopy of often planted trees, on the north side of the house, in a coniferous forest, under old apple trees with an extensive crown.
- If plantings are planned under Christmas trees, it must be remembered that the spruce gives a very dense, extensive shadow, does not let rain water into the crown projection area.
- Under the oak, the shadow is thick, but the soil is always wet.
- The maple casts a dense shadow; its crown lets rain water through.
- Linden gives a strong shadow, does not let moisture in and dries the soil.
In conditions of dense shade, a special microclimate is formed, the humidity of the soil and air is higher here, so they warm up less, and the temperature is lower. Penumbra occurs where the sun is either before lunch, or after, for example, on the east or west side of the house. Either only in the morning or only in the evening. A light (openwork) shadow is created under the canopy of trees with a rare openwork crown. Such a shadow is created by birch, pine, acacia, aspen, bird cherry, cherry, plum. Birch gives a diffuse shadow, but it dries the soil very much in a radius twice the crown. Bird cherry also dries the soil.
The plants used to create shady flower beds are very diverse. First of all, these are shade-loving and shade-tolerant plants. Shade-tolerant species feel good both in partial shade and in light shade, where they reach their greatest flowering, but can also tolerate a dense dense shadow. An example of such plants is the different species and varieties of astilbe, aquilegia, cornflower, and others.
Shade-loving people differ in that they cannot grow in full sunlight, but they feel great in a dense dense shade. Most shadelings prefer to grow on moist soils with high humidity. In such natural conditions, these plants grow in the forest. There, their attitude towards light and moisture was formed. A striking example of moisture-loving shadelings is the European hoof.
Clefthoof is a unique plant. He survives in the darkest places, under the branches of young fir trees. The scientific name for the asarum hoof comes from the Greek asaros - “carpet”. The Russian generic name "hoof" characterizes the hoof-like shape of the leaves of the plant. Clefthoof has another popular name - “wild pepper”. The crushed fresh leaves of the plant have a taste and smell of pepper, but it is not recommended to prepare salads from it.
Suitable plants for a flower garden in the shade
Among shade-loving plants, there are those who prefer dry shade. Most of them are plants from the forests of the south of the Russian Plain, Central Asia, and Moldova. These include different types of bitterness, periwinkle, forest anemone, broadleaf, and others. The list below shows the names of perennial plants that can be used to create a flower garden in the shade.
In addition to perennial plants, some types of shade-tolerant and shade-loving shrubs and conifers, lianas, and also bulbous and annuals can and should be used in the flower garden. Bulbous trees will delight you with their bright colors from early spring, and annual plants will cover some of the voids in the flower bed between planted perennials, until the latter have grown.
- Shade-like plants from conifers include the decorative forms of common spruce, Canadian tsuga, common juniper, of deciduous ones - padon-leaved mahonia, apical pachisander, etc.
- The list of shade-hardy is already wider. This is balsam fir Nana, Korean fir, cypress cypress, juniper middle and Cossack, Serbian spruce and bluish spruce, western thuja and its forms, white derain, black elderberry, tree hydrangea, panicled, etc.
- Creepers: actinidia colomictus, wood pliers.
- Various types of ferns adorn the shady garden. Their beautiful openwork foliage looks good with most shady plants. One of the most beautiful ferns of our flora is the ostrich. It grows very quickly, forming openwork thickets.
When planting plants in the flower garden, you should follow a few simple rules. Large, tall plants are planted in the background or in the center of the flower garden if the flower garden is viewed from all sides. These plants make up the upper tier. Following plants are planted below the growth, making up the middle tier. And planting, creeping or ground cover, which make up the lower tier, is planted on the batch.
Plants growing in the shade are mostly distinguished not by bright flowering, but by the beautiful shape and texture of the leaves. Given these characteristics of plants and competently composing them among themselves, you can create a unique flower garden in beauty. Examples of shadow flower beds can be found on our website in the flower beds section.
Plants for dry shade
- Aquilegia (catchment)
- Aconite (fighter) Fisher
- Autumn Anemones
- Asperula (woodruff)
- Badan (Bergenia)
- Dicentra (broken heart)
- The tenacious creeping
- Iris fetid
- Crocosmia (montbrecia)
- Lily of the valley
- Mirris fragrant
- Almond Euphorbia
- Freezers (gelleborus)
- Digitalis (digitalis)
- Sedge, burns and other cereals
- Primrose spring and ordinary
- Chistets woolly
- Daphne (Daphne)
- Gaulteria (pernettia) peaked
- Keriya japanese
- Magonia holly and creeping
- Neapolitan Cyclamen
Plants for wet shade
- Aruncus ordinary (Volzhanka)
- Brunner largeleaf
- Angelica (angelica)
- Star Epipactis
- Kamchatka lysihiton
- Crown Lychnis
- Euphorbia multicolor
- Noble liver
- Sanguinaria canadian
- Smilacin (minnik) racemose
- Tiarella hearty
- Large Trillium
- Tritsirtis Taiwanese
- Uvulia grandiflora
- Chokeberry (chokeberry)
- Akebia Five
- Common hops
Agrotechnics growing plants in the shade
Most plants growing in the shade prefer fertile, loose soil. Therefore, to create favorable conditions for plants, especially growing under the canopy of trees, the soil must be carefully prepared. First of all, remove all weeds, preferably without the use of chemicals. Then - fertilize the soil. Clay and loamy soils contain sufficient nutrients, but heavy clays need to be improved by adding sand and peat.
It is good to add complex fertilizers, clay fertile soil or greasy humus to sandy soils and mulch them from drying out. When plants are planted close to near-stem circles, it is impossible to dig up soil closer than four meters to tree trunks, and even more so to raise the soil level in the near-trunk region. An important role in the formation of the fertile soil layer is played by annual leaf litter. If it is not removed, it rots and forms a loose, very nutritious layer of humus for plants, and also serves as a good shelter of plants for the winter.
Another necessary condition for the successful development of plants is watering. Only subject to all conditions of planting and agricultural technology, your flower beds will delight you with their beauty and abundant flowering.