Persimmon - a divine fire in the garden
Each garden is rich in fruit crops habitual for the region. In spring, gardens are buried in flowers, in autumn - in fruits. But more and more gardeners appear - lovers of exotic fruit, unusual for the region. Their many years of work and time spent are rewarded with unusual fruits. And although their harvest may be very small, it attracts with its unusualness. The mysterious persimmon belongs to such exotic cultures - a natural storehouse of useful substances.
- Origin and distribution area
- Persimmon short description
- Where can persimmon be grown? Persimmon requirements for growing conditions
- Types and varieties of persimmons for outdoor cultivation
- Persimmon varieties
- Dates of planting persimmon seedlings
- Rules for planting persimmons in the open ground
- Protecting persimmons from pests and diseases
- Harvesting and storing persimmons
Origin and distribution area
Persimmon belongs to the ebony family and is allocated in a separate genus - Diospyros. Latin has Greek roots and in translation into Russian means "food of the gods", "divine fire." Cultivated persimmons are often called date plums or wild dates.
According to various sources, some consider China to be the birthplace of persimmons, where its wild forms are 500 years old. Indochina is considered the other place of origin, where wild forms live at an altitude of up to 2.5 km above sea level and withstand sub-zero temperatures of up to 18-20 ° С.
“Having tried once - you will not forget” - people say about persimmons. Indeed, this amazing fruit, which forms the taste of fruits only after frost, is fascinating. Today it is difficult to name a country that the fruits of persimmon would not be familiar with. Culture is common in many countries of Europe and Asia. It is successfully grown in China, Japan, the Philippines, Australia, Indonesia, the USA, and Israel.
This list of states includes the Eurasian continent of the CIS and Russia. Persimmon enters the markets from the Krasnodar Territory, southern Stavropol Territory, Ferghana Valley and other warm regions. As a fruit crop, persimmon is cultivated in all countries and regions where there are suitable climatic conditions, in open and protected ground.
Persimmon short description
Under natural conditions, persimmon trees reach 10-12 and even 20-30 m in height and resemble an apple tree in appearance. The leaves are alternate, dark green, without pubescence, below a lighter shade. The shape of the leaf blade is wide-lanceolate, oblong-ovate, by the fall they acquire a red color in different shades and intensities.
Persimmon flowers are located in leaf sinuses, single or in bunches of several pieces on short pedicels. Calyx and corolla 4 - lobed. Petals of the corolla are yellowish white. The calyx “grows” to the fetus. Persimmon blooms from May to June. Flowers are formed of 3 types: female, male and mixed. Plants can be mono- and dioecious, when female and male flowers are located on different trees.
Novice gardeners sometimes cut down fruitless persimmon trees (male), depriving the crop and a tree with female flowers. Persimmon belongs to insect pollinated crops. Sometimes unpolluted female flowers develop as parthenocarpics and form seedless fruits. (Parthenocarpy - fertilization without pollination of plants).
Persimmon fruit is a berry, the color of which varies from brownish yellow to bright orange, bright red, brown, with tasty slightly tart pulp, unusually sweet in biological maturity, depending on the species. 3-8-10 seeds are located in the pulp. The smooth peel of the berry and the shape resemble a tomato. The mass of the fetus is from 100 to 500 g.
Unripe fruits have an astringent, bitter taste due to the high content of tannins. Fruits ripen in October-November, remaining on the tree after falling leaves. It is after freezing that the fruits acquire their unusually sweet taste.
Where can persimmon be grown? Persimmon requirements for growing conditions
Persimmon, according to breeders, has more than 725 species and in vivo grows in subtropical and tropical regions of different countries. In other regions, persimmons can also be grown in open and closed ground, creating conditions that meet its requirements.
If you decide to try to grow persimmons in your country house in the open ground or at home, carefully read the requirements of this culture to environmental conditions and agricultural farming technology.
Persimmon requires a lot of heat and sun. Therefore, before deciding in what conditions to grow a crop, be sure to find the values of active temperatures and the duration of solar radiation (sunny days during the growing season) in your area from the directories. They should be at least +3000 ° С and 2000 hours per year, respectively. At such temperatures, persimmons can be grown in open ground.
At the nearest station, get acquainted with the climatic characteristics of the area of residence: the number of sunny days, rainfall, the temperature threshold of summer and winter temperatures, and other indicators. Note that persimmons are resistant to winds. See if the indicators fit the optimal for growing persimmons. With other indicators - you can grow a crop in greenhouses with year-round heating and lighting, in greenhouses or at home.
During the growing season, persimmon develops well at temperatures of +25 .. + 28-30 ° С. Loves sunny weather, but without dry air. On such days, the tree needs to be sprayed with clean water to create a moistened microclimate (except for the flowering period).
In winter, the root system withstands frosts down to -6 ..- 8 ° С. Frost-resistant varieties withstand air temperatures in the range -16 ..- 18 ° C. With a further decrease (-19 ..- 20 ° C), annual and partially two-year growths are frozen. Some zoned frost-resistant varieties can withstand temperatures of -25 ..- 27 ° C, but crown frostbite constantly occurs.
It should be taken into account that sharp drops in temperature to –9 ° C, especially in late autumn (November), can cause frostbite on young seedlings. With such cataclysms of the climate, young seedlings must be covered in the first years.
In regions where the winter temperature does not fall below -5 ..- 8 ° C, persimmons can be grown without winter shelter. In other regions, even frost-resistant varieties need winter shelter. For shelters, you can use any covering, but breathing, material: agrofiber, reeds, spruce branches, etc.
Persimmon has a very long vegetative period, but one positive temperature is not enough for normal growth and development. Bright lighting is needed for a long period. Therefore, for growing in open ground, well-sunlit areas that are closed from wind and drafts are selected. Some gardeners engaged in persimmons for a long time recommend planting it against the wall of the house, thus creating a natural defense.
The number of sunny days with sufficiently high temperatures is very important for this crop. With a lack of bright sunny days, the persimmon crown becomes weakly branched, the fruits are small, crumbling early.
For example: in the Moscow region for normal vegetation of persimmons there is not enough bright sun and summer heat. In this region, it will develop normally in the conditions of a partially heated greenhouse, home garden, and greenhouse.
Persimmon soil requirements
The best soils for persimmons are chernozems (even loamy, with good drainage) forest, turf. It does not tolerate the culture of swampy, saline, carbonate soils. It does not grow on pebbles, and when grown on sandy soils, it requires increased amounts of humus, mature compost and other additives that increase the moisture capacity of soil.
Under natural conditions, persimmons require 900-1200 mm of precipitation per year for growth and development, that is, irrigation is needed in long-term dry weather. So, in the Krasnodar Territory about 700 mm of precipitation falls annually, which is clearly not enough for this crop. With good irrigation, persimmon easily tolerates increased air dryness and reacts positively to additional fine spraying. The soil should be moist, without stagnation of water in the zone of the root system.
Types and varieties of persimmons for outdoor cultivation
Despite the wide variety of species that grow under natural conditions, mainly three species are used in fruit growing.
- Persimmon Caucasian, or Persimmon (Diospyros lotus),
- Persimmon Virgin (Diospyros virginiana),
- Kaki (Diospyros kaki).
Based on the Caucasian and Virgin, used as stocks, hybrid persimmons are obtained with increased frost resistance and fruits, characterized by increased weight, sweetness and lack of astringency.
Persimmon Caucasian, or Persimmon ordinary
The culture is distributed mainly in China and Japan. In Russia and the CIS, Caucasian persimmon occupies significant areas in the Crimea and Transcaucasia. The height of the trees is 5-18 m, it is distinguished by fineness and pulp astringency. Frost resistance is characteristic. The roots withstand frosts of -10 ... -12 ° C, and the crown -22 ..- 24 ° C. These temperatures are the limit of frost resistance for her.
There are no cultivars; it does not form shoots when used in stock. They are used mainly as a stock for persimmon east. Seedlings on the Caucasian rootstock tolerate transplanting well, drought tolerant, undemanding to soils.
The homeland of Virginia persimmon is considered the southern part of North America. Trees are not more than twenty meters in height, have pretty good resistance to frost.
Persimmon Virgin - a quality stock. The root system withstands frosts to -15 ° C, the crown - up to -35 ° C. These properties allow grafted varieties to be promoted to colder areas. Moreover, they are not afraid of winter thaws. Seedlings develop well on heavy loam and sandy loam, waterlogged soils, but they are difficult to tolerate a transplant, due to the formation of weak rod roots. Persimmon trees on this stock are less durable than on the Caucasian one and form relatively low yields.
Cultivated varieties of virgin persimmon, which in America are called Persimmons. In Russia, an interspecific hybrid with eastern persimmon, called the Russian woman and the Nikitsky burgundy variety, which respectively have frost resistance of -25 and -30 ° C, was bred. Russian woman in 2 years brings the first crop. It grows well in Transcarpathia. Of the new varieties, the Belogorye variety is highly frost-resistant.
Persimmon Eastern is also called Japanese. Deciduous trees with a loose crown, are characterized by rapid growth. In Russia, persimmon grows in the Krasnodar Territory, Sochi, Sukhumi.
Currently, more than 1000 varieties and hybrids with different taste and economic qualities have been developed on the basis of eastern persimmon. Varieties of this type are intended mainly for garden plantings. The culture forms large, juicy, very sweet fruits, the shape of which varies from rounded to elongated-rounded, and color - from yellow-orange to dark red.
Persimmon trees are eastern mono- and dioecious. Female flowers are single, large, yellowish-white in color with fused corolla petals. Male flowers are much smaller. Bisexual flowers are usually located in groups of 2-4 flowers, forming colonies on growths of the current year. Eastern persimmon blooms in the second half of May - early June, pollinated by bumblebees and bees.
The vast majority of varieties of eastern persimmon tolerates frosts down to -15 ° С. They grow oriental persimmon in all regions where climatic conditions are optimal for the crop (see Persimmon requirements for growing conditions).
Persimmon varieties with sweet pulp
Persimmon varieties with sweet flesh that do not change color during ripening and storage include: Giro, Krymchanka 55, Nakhodka, Kiara, Meotsu saukune, Mishirazu, Fuyu, Twentieth Century, Korolek, Crimean, Excellent, Triumph, Sharon, Golden, Hope , Gypsy, Harvest, Eastern, Chianume, Ukrainian, Dawn, Dawn, Chocolate and others. The fruit acquires a sweet taste of pulp after the appearance of a characteristic varietal color on them, even if the pulp itself is still hard.
Persimmon varieties with tart pulp
Large-fruited varieties of Tanenasha and Khachia were obtained from the Virgin Russian woman. Sydles with a flesh of a brownish tint, medium-sized, Zorka-187 with characteristic flattened fruits. They remain tart until biological maturation and acquire sweetness after complete biological maturation and maturation or slight freezing.
In addition to the above, these include Gosho, Soyo, Tsuru, Kostat, Adreula, Emon, Aizu Mishirazu, Dream, Novelty, Nikitsky burgundy, Meader, John Rick, Weber, Autumn Souvenir, Century-old, Varying, Golden Autumn, Izobilnaya, Yalta, , Friendship, Crane, Adjara.
Persimmon varieties with increased frost resistance
Persimmon varieties with increased frost resistance, the most common among gardeners of the Crimea and the southern regions, some areas of the middle lane where persimmons can be grown in open ground without shelter and with shelter, include Rossiyanka, Goverla Gora and Gora Roman-Kosh, Vostochnaya, Virgininskaya, Kavkazskaya , Meader, Korolek, Nikitsky burgundy, Golden, Autumn Souvenir, Find, Dawn, Crimean, Nikitsky burgundy, Southern Beauty, Golden Autumn. They are able to endure short-term frosts up to -20 ..- 30 ° С.
Persimmon varieties by maturity
In summer cottages, it is best to grow early varieties of persimmon, large- and medium-fruited.
- Ultra-early: Ukrainian, Abundant, Yankin-Tsuru. The fruits are ready for harvest in late August - early September.
- Early: Sputnik, Hyakume, Chocolate, Asterisk, Golden, Southern Beauty. Fruits are harvested in the 2nd - 3rd decade of September.
- Medium: South Coast, Batumi II, Tempting, Dawn, Dawn, Khachia, Autumn Souvenir, Dream, Crane, Kuro-Kuma, Galey, Pollinator-48. The fruits are harvested in October.
The persimmons listed above are annually replenished with more modern, with improved economic properties. But you need to remember: the older the variety, the more stable it resists frost, drought, fog and other climatic cataclysms. Therefore, for growing in the country, it is better to purchase old proven varieties.
Perspective persimmon varieties
From the above varieties, we can distinguish the group of the most promising for summer cultivation: Golden, Autumn Souvenir, Nakhodka, Zorka, Krymchanka, Southern Beauty, Russian, Nikitsky Burgundy, Pollinator-48, Tempting, Dream, Asterisk, Golden Autumn.
When choosing persimmon varieties for growing in the country, be sure to familiarize yourself with the zoned local varieties in advance. Put their name and a brief description in your garden diary.
Dates of planting persimmon seedlings
In the southern regions with early hot spring and bright withering sun, persimmon seedlings are recommended to be planted in autumn. A long warm time will allow the young tree to take root and adapt to the new environment, and early regeneration of their root system will begin in spring.
In cooler regions, persimmon seedlings are planted in spring. In this case, planting in a fairly warm soil (+ 14-15 ° C) will contribute to better development of the root system, and a moderately warm climate (+18 .. + 20-22 ° C) will ensure the development of the upper part of the plants.
Persimmon seedlings for autumn planting are purchased no earlier than the third decade of October - the first decade of November in specialized stores or firms. By this time, the seedling wood has time to mature. A seedling with matured wood has a brownish bark.
Persimmon seedlings with a greenish bark should not be bought. They will not endure winter frosts and die. After the autumn planting, seedlings need to be protected from frost and protected from rodents.Frost tolerance of a culture increases with age. Therefore, in the first 3-4 years, even frost-resistant varieties need shelters.
For spring planting, persimmon seedlings bought in the autumn are dug up and in the spring in the third decade of March - the first half of April they are planted in a permanent place. More reliable planting dates are determined by the temperature of the soil in the root layer.
It is better to buy 2-3 seedlings, one of which should be a pollinator (male variety). You can choose self-fertile or female varieties, do 2 seedlings with a lack of free space, suitable for planting persimmons. Keep in mind that persimmons produce self-fertile female and some male varieties. With cross-pollination, large-fruition increases and fewer fruits crumble in the process of development and ripening.
Rules for planting persimmons in the open ground
In general, planting and caring for persimmons is carried out in the same way as for apples, peaches. Landing pits are prepared in advance, of normal sizes. Usually its dimensions are 40-60x40 - 60x40-60 cm. The distance between plantings, depending on the future variety, is at least 4-5-6 m. The final volume of the planting pit is prepared before planting, according to the size of the root system of the seedling. Depth depends on the type of soil.
If it is necessary to install drainage or introduce a large amount of humus, sand, the depth of the pit is increased to 60-80 cm. At the bottom, drainage is made of gravel, broken brick, pebbles 15-20 cm high, especially if groundwater is close to the surface or clay soil and lets water through slowly.
A day before planting, persimmon seedlings slightly shorten the root system and cut off the central conductor to 80-90 cm. The root is soaked in a solution of root or zircon, another similar drug. The soil from the pit is mixed with 1 to 2 buckets of humus or mature compost. Add a glass of nitroammophoski, you can kemira. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and part of the slide is transferred into the pit. A support is installed in the center, preferably a wooden one, to which a planted seedling will then be tied up with a soft tourniquet through an eight.
Persimmon sapling is set in the center of a soil hill in a pit. They straighten the root on the sides of the hill and fill the soil mixture to the middle. Squeeze lightly with your hands and pour a bucket of water warmed in the sun. Fill up the remaining soil.
At the final planting, the root neck should be at the level of the soil, which means that the vaccination will then be higher. Around a planted persimmon tree a mound (rim) is poured 5–6 cm high and about 1 m in diameter so that the water does not spread over the soil surface and soaks the soil in the planting pit. Pour 3-4 buckets of water. After absorbing water, the soil around the seedling is mulched. Weeds are removed during the growing season. The soil around the seedling should be constantly loose and mulched.
Outdoor Persimmon Care
Persimmon crowns begin the next year after planting. The height of the stem is 50-60 cm. The crown is formed according to a sparse-tier system or in the shape of a bowl, which reduces the height of the tree: this is very important for winter shelter (if necessary) and harvesting.
Persimmons are usually grown in warm, which means, as a rule, arid areas. Persimmon is considered an irrigated crop. In the first year, watering is carried out 3 times a month (without flooding). With age, their number is reduced to 3 to 4 times during the growing season, including autumn recharge before winter shelter. If the year is rich in rains, persimmons are not watered.
The best fertilizer for persimmons is organics. Depending on age, from 0.5 to 2 - 3 buckets of humus are applied under one tree in the spring once every 3-4 years. From mineral fertilizers, a year later, in the spring, a full mineral fertilizer (nitrophosphate, kemir, others) is introduced under the tree.
Before flowering, a good effect gives the introduction of 1-2 glasses of ash. Fertilizers are applied in special grooves around the crown or in the dug holes, they are closed and watered. Good results on saturation of the soil with the necessary nutrients are provided by winter winter crops of green manure. In the spring, trying not to injure the roots, they are finely embedded in the soil.
Protecting persimmons from pests and diseases
Most often, persimmon is affected by scab. For protection, spraying of the crown with 1% Bordeaux liquid is used in the phases of leaf blooming, budding and mass formation of ovaries. Of other diseases, gray rot is common, causing mass shedding of ovaries, and powdery mildew. Under adverse climatic conditions, cracks appear on the branches, bark of the stems, shoots, through which infection with bacterial cancer occurs, which leads to the formation of ulcers and death of plants.
Of other fungal diseases, the aerial mass of persimmons is affected by black spotting of leaves and shoots, and fusarium. Persimmon is affected by a bacterial burn. A neglected disease affects even the roots of the plant.
In a small garden, it is advisable to use biological products (phytosporin, mucosan, haupsin, trichodermin, glyocladin, planriz, etc.) to protect against human and animal health from diseases. In all cases, biologics should be used only in accordance with the recommendations. An independent change in the concentration of solutions does not give the expected effect.
Of the persimmon pests, a soft false-sclerae, wood odorous, mealy mealybug seaside are common. With a high number of pests populate the whole tree, severely damage the generative organs and young shoots. Over time, they cause complete collapse of leaves and ovaries, create conditions for secondary fungal infection (“black”), which, covering the plant organs with a dense black film, impede the passage of metabolic processes. A tree in a neglected form of infection can die.
The fight against pests, like diseases, when growing persimmons in summer cottages, is best done with biological products, using bicol, boverin, actophyte, acarin. The last 2 biologics are effective against the worm, but only when processed in warm weather (+18 .. + 28 ° C).
If the tree is severely affected by the worm, then in the bud phase and no later than 30-40 days before harvesting, you can use for spraying a chemical preparation (which is undesirable in the country) confidor-extra. According to gardeners, it effectively destroys worms.
Of the biological products with a double action against pests on persimmons, you can use haupsin, which destroys not only fungal diseases, but also a number of pests.
Harvesting and storing persimmons
Collect the fruits by hand, very carefully so as not to injure the delicate peel. The beginning of the collection is determined by the color of the fruit characteristic of the variety. Store crops in baskets and crates.
To prolong the freshness of persimmons, it is stored at a temperature of 0 ..- 1 ° C. Duration of storage is up to 3 months. Persimmon soft to the touch is ready for use, its pulp will not be astringent. The best way to store persimmons is freezing in cold stores. Quick freezing retains all the quality indicators of the fruit. At the same time, the fruits become sweeter, their astringency goes away. The shelf life is extended to 6 months.