Cherry - a perennial woody crop growing in the form of a tree or bush. The aerial part consists of one or several trunks and a crown. Growth and fruiting of trees are determined by the ratio of flowering and growth buds on annual branches. Depending on the type of fruiting, all sorts of cherries can be conditionally divided into two groups: bushy and tree-like. The former bear fruit mainly on annual branches, the latter on bouquet branches. Bushy include Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya, Polevole, Molodezhnaya, Generous, etc. The group of treelike includes Zhukovskaya, Moscow Griot, Turgenevka, etc.
In contrast to the apple tree, flower buds in cherries are usually simple, i.e. of these, only flowers and fruits develop. After shedding fruit, the branches are exposed. In bush cherries, the nature of fruiting depends on the length of growth of the branch in the previous year. Weak growth - a consequence of poor agricultural technology, reduces the yield not only of the next year, but also of subsequent years. On short shoots (10-15 cm), all lateral buds are flowering and only the apical one is growth. At short increments, group and growth buds are not laid. This leads to a decrease in branching, exposure of branches, and a decrease in yield. With good growth on shoots 30–40 cm long, lateral growth and group buds are laid, branching improves, the total number of flower buds increases, and the yield increases.
© Jens Jäpel
Varieties of tree cherries carry the main part of the crop on bouquet branches, the formation of which is also closely related to the growth length. On long annual branches (30-40 cm), only growth buds are located. The next year, shoots and bouquet branches are formed from them. Depending on the care, the life span of bouquet branches varies from 2 to 7 years. Treelike cherries are less prone to bare branches than bushy cherries, and due to the bouquet branches they have more flowering buds. The more bouquet twigs are formed and the longer they live, the higher and more regular the crop.
Throughout life, cherry trees go through three main periods: growth, fruiting and drying. In all periods, the growth length is an indicator of the level of agricultural technology. In order to extend the fruiting period, it is necessary to maintain an optimal growth length with good care of the plants, i.e. 30-40 cm.
The root system consists of skeletal and fibrous roots. During fruiting, most active roots (60–80%) are located at a depth of 20–40 cm along the crown periphery. This should be taken into account when applying fertilizers and tillage.
© Alina Zienowicz
Growing planting material
Grafted planting material
Depending on the method of propagation, root and grafted cherry plants can be obtained. For propagation by the vaccination method, first you need to grow a stock and then plant a cultivar on it. As a stock, seedlings obtained from seeds (seeds) are usually used.
Seed harvesting. It is advisable to harvest seeds from the stocked zoned varieties - Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, etc. Bones are selected from healthy fruits that have reached full maturity. Freshly harvested seeds without drying are placed in a humid environment (sawdust, sand, moss) for stratification, or stored moistened without a substrate in plastic bags until autumn sowing.
Seed stratification and sowing. In order to acquire the ability to germinate, the seeds must go through a preparatory dormant period under certain conditions. Such conditions can be in the soil in nature, i.e. autumn sowing of seeds is possible (from late August to October). Since environmental conditions are not always favorable for post-harvest ripening, spring crops are more reliable after a period of preparation in artificial conditions, i.e. after stratification. Before autumn sowing or laying for stratification, it is recommended to soak the seeds for 5-7 days, water must be changed daily.
For stratification, the seeds are mixed with a triple volume of moisture-preserving material - sawdust, sifted, well-washed river sand, sphagnum moss. To protect the bones from mold and decay, they are treated by immersing for several seconds in a solution of potassium permanganate (25 mg per 1 liter of water). Before seed cracking begins, seeds are stored at a temperature of 15–20 ° С (about 2 months), and then until germination at 2–6 ° С in a basement or a home refrigerator. After about a third of the seeds bite, they are placed in a snowfield or glacier. The total duration of stratification is 150-180 days. During stratification, the substrate is periodically moistened and mixed.
The area designated for sowing must be dug well and fertilized per 1 m2 of 10-15 kg of humus, 40-60 g of superphosphate, 20-30 g of potassium salt, on acidic soils - 100 g of lime. If there are no mineral fertilizers, then the humus can be mixed with ash (150-200 g / m2). On the surface of carefully prepared soil, grooves are made 3-5 cm deep at a distance of 25-30 cm from one another.
Sprouted bones are carefully separated from sand or other material, laid on the bottom of the grooves after 4-5 cm, covered with good nutritious soil, watered, mulched.
Graft. During the first season, well-developed seedlings suitable for vaccination are obtained from the seeds. If it was possible to get thick seedlings, in the spring of next year they are thinned out, leaving them in 15-20 cm. The vaccination is carried out in spring or summer during the sap flow. In spring, grafts are inoculated with two or three buds according to the method of improved copulation, scab, behind the bark and in the lateral incision. Cuttings are harvested in early winter before severe frosts and stored at a temperature of 0 ° C (in the basement, refrigerator, snow piles). In the presence of wild growth or the desire to have a different variety, the skeletal branches are severely cut and re-grafted for 1-2 seasons using one of the above methods.
Okulirovanie (eye vaccination) is carried out in July - August during the period of sap flow. For a greater guarantee of survival, they are budged with two eyes.
Own planting stock
Own varietal planting material can be grown from root offspring (shoots), as well as from root cuttings of healthy trees with high yields.
The shoots are dug in September-October or early in the spring before buds open. The best one-two-year-old offspring with a branched above-ground part are selected on the periphery of the crown in bright places. They dig them up, retreating by 15-20 cm. The dug up root cord is cut from both sides so that the root remaining with the shoot is 30 cm long. With poor development of fouling roots, it is advisable to grow the offspring on fertilized loose ridges with frequent watering.
Propagation by root cuttings. The roots are harvested in late autumn or early spring. Upper roots are exposed at the places of their accumulation, and sections of 12-15 cm are cut from a part with a thickness of 0.4 to 1.5 cm. In winter, cuttings are stored in a basement in wet sand at a temperature of 0— + 2 ° C. In early spring, root cuttings are planted on previously prepared ridges in grooves at a distance of 8-10 cm one from another, obliquely so that the upper end is covered with a soil layer of 1-2 cm, and the lower 3-5 cm. The ridges are abundantly watered and mulched. Root offspring and plants from cuttings can be used as stocks for grafting new promising varieties on them.
Seat selection. For planting cherries should be allocated more elevated, well-lit places. In the central and northern regions, places near fences, buildings, where a warmer microclimate and more snow shelter are created, are most suitable. The depth of groundwater is no higher than 1.5–2 m from the soil surface. The reaction of the soil solution should be close to neutral (pH 6.5-7.0).
Soil preparation. Most soils before planting trees need to be improved, i.e. adapt to the characteristics of the growth of trees. Podzolic soils are dug up on a bayonet shovels and the earth is mixed with lime and fertilizers. Organic fertilizers (manure, composts) are applied at a rate of 10-15 kg / m2, mineral fertilizers at a rate of 15–20 g of phosphorus, 20–25 g of potassium (according to the active substance). The rate of lime depends on the mechanical composition of the soil and its degree of acidity. It is better to make lime separately from mineral fertilizers.
On rich chernozems, 5–6 kg of organic fertilizers, 20–25 g of phosphorus, and 10–15 g of potassium (according to the active substance) are applied per square meter.
Acidic peaty soils with close occurrence of groundwater are unsuitable for cultivating cherries. Drainage of peaty soils, pre-planting addition of other soil to peat (per 1 m2 50-60 kg of soil, 1 kg of manure, 20-25 g of phosphorus, 15-20 g of potassium, 300-800 g of lime) have a positive effect on growth and fruiting. Along with the general pre-planting preparation of the site, it is necessary (especially on soils with low supply of nutrients) to apply fertilizer to the planting pits. From organic fertilizers, humus, non-acid peat, and aged composts are brought into the planting pits; potassium sulfate is better from potash fertilizers. It is not recommended to make nitrogen fertilizers and lime in the planting pits, this can worsen the survival rate. One landing pit requires 10-15 kg of organic fertilizers (the same amount in the trunk circle for mulching), 200 g of phosphorus, 60 g of potassium. Instead of potash, it is good to use ash - 0.5 kg per landing pit.
Planting material. Digging. Healthy, well-developed seedlings with 3-4 branching of skeletal roots are suitable for planting. During transportation, the roots of the trees must be protected from drying out. During autumn planting, only the soaked ends and especially long branching of the roots that do not fit in the landing pit are slightly cut. It is useful to immerse dried seedlings after trimming the roots for 6-10 hours in water.
Saplings for spring planting for the winter drip. They dig a trench 30–35 cm deep in the direction from west to east. On the south side, the wall of the trench is made inclined (at an angle of 30–45 °) and a number of seedlings are laid in it with crowns to the south, in order to avoid sunburns on boles if possible. After backfilling, the soil is tightly pressed to the roots and trunks so that there are no voids through which cold air can penetrate. If the soil is not wet enough, dug seedlings should be watered. Between them and around the trench it is useful to put fir spruce branches, this protects against damage by mice and partially from bark burns.
Landing time. In the southern regions, as well as in the central regions during the years with favorable fall and winter, autumn landing gives good results. However, with the early onset of frost and in a snowy winter, the seedlings freeze strongly. Autumn planting should be completed 20-30 days before the soil freezes. Seedlings are better preserved during planting in early spring, as soon as the soil thaws and dries out a little.
Landing technique. For planting, dig holes with a width of 80 cm and a depth of 50-60 cm. When digging, the top layer of soil is discarded in one direction, the bottom in the other. In the center of the pit, a landing stake is installed, around which a hill is poured from the top layer of the soil mixed with humus and mineral fertilizers. The lower infertile layer, taken out of the pit, is best scattered along the aisle. When backfilling a seedling, it is ensured that the root neck is at the level of the soil, taking into account its subsidence of 2-5 cm, especially on dense soils. Around the seedling make a hole along the edges of which a roller is poured from the ground. Two buckets of water are poured into the hole. After watering, the soil around the tree is sprinkled with loose earth, peat or humus to preserve moisture. The seedling is tied to a stake in the form of a figure eight so that there is no constriction on the stem.
The distance between the trees in the row should be 2 m (for tall plants 3 m), between the rows - 3 m.
- Cherry - A. M. Mikheev, N. T. Revyakina