Yellow raspberries - varieties, cultivation and care
Yellow raspberries are one of the most interesting cultures of our gardens. Yes, you will not meet it often, however, if you try to grow it, then it is already impossible to refuse, because it is not only a delicacy, but also a beauty!
The benefits of yellow raspberries
Yellow raspberry berries have fewer acids, which is why they seem to taste sweeter than red ones.
A small amount of anthocyanins (dyes) allows them to be eaten by people prone to allergies, and pregnant women, and young children. The increased content of folic acid defines it as a means of strengthening immunity, purifying the blood, maintaining new cells in a healthy state.
Like the red rival, yellow raspberry is a good expectorant and diaphoretic and antipyretic, has the ability to relieve spasms from tired vocal cords, helps with intestinal disorders, and helps to eliminate toxins from the body.
Yellow raspberries are primarily eaten fresh, but they are no worse processed than red berries. They make marmalade, marshmallows, jam, jams, compotes ...
Features of Yellow Raspberries
Most varieties of yellow raspberries belong to the group of repair. All modern varieties are characterized by high productivity, up to 6 - 9 kg per bush, have large berries, from 5 to 10, and even 12 g, extended fruiting, increased resistance to diseases and pests, to low temperatures.
There is an opinion that the berries of yellow raspberries are not only not transportable, but also do not hold their shape. This statement is actually true, but only in relation to the old varieties, modern varieties have a solid drupes, excellent presentation and are well stored.
Growing Yellow Raspberries
The agricultural technique of yellow raspberries is practically no different from the agricultural technique of growing red varieties.
Seedlings are planted in open sunny areas, in places where there is no stagnation of moisture and there is protection against cold northerly winds. It is better if the rows are located from north to south or from northeast to southwest, because this way plants have the ability to get maximum light, which is especially true for areas with short cold summers.
If you have a choice, then the most acceptable option for breaking down the berry is a flat area or slope up to 8 ° C. The place, after nightshade is not permissible, due to the defeat of this group of cultures by verticillous wilting. Do not plant raspberries after raspberries, leaving the land for rest for 5 years.
Soil for yellow raspberries
The best results can be achieved by planting yellow raspberries on sandy and light loamy soils. On sandy soils, planting will need more painstaking care. But on heavy acidic soils it is better not to crush raspberries at all (if the pH of the soil is <5.5 - it is not suitable for planting raspberries).
Like red raspberries, yellow varieties are planted in autumn - at the end of September and until mid-October (in the southern regions a few weeks later or early in spring).
The most effective planting method is a trench with a row spacing of 1.2 - 1.6 m (and for tall varieties and 2 m), a trench width of 0.5 - 0.6 m. The density of plants in a row is oriented to the shoot formation ability of the variety, it can be 0.4 m or more.
Seedlings during planting do not deepen.
Yellow Raspberry Care
In order for yellow raspberries to give a good harvest (stated in the description for the variety), competent care is necessary for it. And the first thing you need to start with is feeding.
If the crop is planted in a trench method, you can forget about fertilizing for several years. In other cases, it needs nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, boron, iron, manganese.
A lot of articles have been written on how to properly feed raspberries and many recommendations have been made, however, the scientists have a unified opinion: the yield of this crop largely depends on the growth force of the bush at the initial stage of life. Therefore, the raspberry should be provided with nitrogen in abundance for the first three years. For this purpose, already in February-March, nitrogen fertilizers are applied under it, localizing them closer to the bushes for the first two years, and then dispersing them in a row.
Sometimes the dose is divided into two parts, the first time feeding raspberries in the fall. At the same time, in the autumn-winter period, part of the nitrogen is washed out, but on the other hand, spring feeding stimulates raspberries to form a large amount of overgrowth, which is also not very good.
You can choose the following scheme: in the first year of plant life, divide the fertilizing with nitrogen and into three parts - the first should be carried out in early May, the second and third in two weeks, with an interval of two weeks. In subsequent years, leave only spring fertilization.
In this case, the best nitrogen fertilizer is urea, but not in dry form, but diluted in water (50 g per 10 l). Under the bush, such a solution is enough in a volume of 1 liter.
Evidence of the full development of raspberry bushes (not excessive and not inhibited) will be an increase in 10 - 12 strong substitution shoots, up to 1.5 - 2 m high (depending on the variety), with an internode length (in the middle part of the shoot) of about 8 - 10 cm .
The remaining elements are added as necessary, which can be determined either by the laboratory method or by focusing on external signs: color and general condition of the leaves, length of internodes, and intensity of shoot formation.
If you do not use tuki on your plot, add cow or horse manure under raspberries in the fall, every 2–3 years, in the amount of 2.5–3 kg per square meter, as well as arrange feeding with ash.
Watering yellow raspberries
Another factor that has a direct impact on crop yield is watering. In the south, raspberries are watered from 6 to 8 times during the growing season: during the period of intensive shoot growth, before flowering, in the phase of formation of green ovary and after harvesting. In the middle zone, 2 to 4 irrigations are sufficient: during the period of intensive growth of shoots and after harvesting.
It is possible to water raspberry on furrows, or by sprinkling.
Ginger Raspberry Garter
If the selected variety requires garter, then by the second year after planting, in the ranks of raspberries, it is necessary to establish posts and pull a trellis on them. The first row of wire is pulled at a height of 1.2 - 1.5 m from the soil surface (depending on the height of the plants), the two lower rows on both sides of the row at a height of 0.6 - 0.7 m. Garter is made before the buds open.
Pruning yellow raspberries
Need yellow raspberries and the right pruning. Repairing varieties are pruned either immediately after fruiting, removing only the fertilized shoots, or in the autumn or early spring, completely cutting off the bush. In the first version, this makes it possible to strengthen new shoots and give a full-fledged autumn harvest. In the second - it makes the plants skip the first, but give a more significant second crop.
Non-permanent varieties are cut in one or two stages, in order to increase the branching of the first and second order.
In addition, it is important to remember that yellow repairing varieties do not like thickening, reacting to it with a decrease in the quantity and quality of the crop. Therefore, in the spring on raspberries, thinning is necessary, leaving 4 to 7 well-formed shoots on the bush.
An important point in raspberry cultivation is also weed control and soil loosening.
Shelter of yellow raspberries for the winter
In most cases, varieties of yellow raspberries are sufficiently resistant to low temperatures, however, where the winters are cold it is better to make sure that severe frosts do not destroy raspberries. To do this, at the end of September - October, the raspberry branches are tilted along the row and tied so that they are no higher than 0.4 m above the ground. In places where especially low temperatures are observed in the absence of snow, raspberries bent to the ground are additionally covered with straw or land.
Propagation of yellow raspberries
Most often, raspberries of yellow varieties are propagated by seedlings. However, if you want, or the inability to get planting material, you can try to get plants from seeds. This is not a simple matter - raspberry seed requires special storage conditions, proper preparation for sowing and has poor germination, but if you tinker with it, you can get a good enough result with a satisfactory, or even high, yield potential.
In order to propagate yellow raspberries with seeds, it is necessary to wash the ripe berries from the pulp, dry the seeds and put them in a paper bag for storage. By the end of September, place the seed in a bag (it can be made from a nylon stocking) and soak for 24 hours in water. Then, right in the bag, wrap in it is necessary to dive, planting young plants with an interval of 5 cm moss sphagnum (with a layer of 3 - 5 cm) and place in a cool place, with a temperature regime of 2 - 3 ° C. If the moss is difficult to find - put in a container of wet sand. In the first ten days of April, sow seeds in rows with rows of 40 cm between rows. After seedlings they rise.
In the summer, seedlings are usually taken care of: they are watered, loosened, weeds removed. In autumn, young raspberries are transplanted to a permanent place. At the same time, plants with dark spikes are rejected - raspberries with yellow berries will not grow from them.
Promising varieties of yellow raspberries
Yellow giant. The variety is semi-permanent. Mid early. Has repeated autumn fruiting. One of the sweetest table varieties. Berries are amber-yellow, very large, weighing about 9 g, dense, fragrant, practically do not crumble, suitable for transportation. Productivity, with proper care, is from 4 to 8 kg per bush. The bush is tall, powerful, spreading, well forms lateral shoots, reaches a height of 2.5 m (spikeless shoots). It requires garter to the trellis. It is highly resistant to pests and diseases. Winter-hardy enough.
Morning dew (Polish name - Porana Rosa). Industrial grade. One of the most fragrant. The berries are round, amber in color, dense, weighing from 5 to 10 g, sweet and sour taste. Productivity is up to 3 kg from a bush. Has a medium-sized bush, up to 1.8 m high, erect, powerful shoots. It is not picky about growing conditions, but loses sugar content during heat. It has a low resistance to fungal diseases. The fruiting period is the first half of June, the second decade of August - before frosts. The highest yield gives a one-time fruiting.
Sweetened yellow. The variety is medium early, not remontant. It is highly resistant to diseases and pests, medium winter hardiness. The berries are yellow and white-yellow, oblong, medium and large, weighing from 3 to 6 g, fragrant, dessert flavor, do not crumble, but are not suitable for transportation. Productivity, with proper care, from 3 to 8 kg per bush. The bush is medium-tall, up to 1.5 m high, sprawling. The shoot formation ability is moderate. Spikeless shoots.
Yaroslavna, Yellow bruzvyana or Rosyatnitsa. The variety is mid-season. Remontant. More suitable for the south. It has two fruiting periods - from the second decade of June, and from the second decade of August to frost. The berries are bright yellow, large, sweet and sour, weighing 10 - 12 g. Average transportability. Productivity of 4 kg from a bush. Shtambovy type bush, medium-tall, up to 1.7 m high. Does not need a garter. Shoots weakly branched. There are few thorns.
Fall gold (Foldold), Golden Autumn, sometimes translated as Golden Rain. The variety is repair. It has increased resistance to pests and diseases. The berries are golden yellow, conical, fragrant, very sweet, dessert taste, weighing from 4 to 7 g. Yield up to 7 kg from the bush. Stretched fruiting. The bush is powerful, sprawling, up to 2.5 m high.
Orange miracle. The variety is repairing, but recommended for one-time fruiting. Very unpretentious, sun-loving, winter-hardy. It is highly resistant to diseases and pests. The berries are bright orange, elongated conical, dense, weighing from 4.5 to 6 g, do not crumble, and have high transportability. Autumn harvest from 2 to 2.5 kg per bush. Bush up to 1.5 m high, semi-spreading, requires garter.
Fool gold (Fulgodl), or the Golden Jester. The variety is repairing, but recommended for a single crop. Resistant to heat and low temperatures. The berries are light amber, very sweet, fragrant, weighing from 4 to 9 g. Transportable. The bush is tall, up to 1.6 m.