Ipomoea - in the garden a fairy!
Morning glory (Ipomoea), farbitis - a genus of flowering plants, is the largest genus of the family Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae) The genus name of this plant is determined by its ability to curl. The name comes from the Greek words ips - “worm” and homoios - “similar”, due to the similarity of the shape of the curly stem to the wriggling worm.
Description of morning glory
Genus Ipomoea has about 500 species. In decorative floriculture, about 25 species are used. The birthplace of this plant is tropical America. In culture, this flower is unpretentious, relatively undemanding to soil, grows better in open sunny places. If we want to get a plentifully flowering plant, then we can feed it with mineral fertilizer with a low nitrogen content - its excess causes the growth of green mass to the detriment of flowering. In a drought, if possible, water it, but this vine does not tolerate stagnation of water.
Ipomoea is propagated by seeds that are sown in spring in open ground. In the southern regions, morning glory gives self-seeding. If we want early flowering, then we can try to grow through seedlings, but the plant does not tolerate transplanting well. When planting seedlings, it is imperative to maintain a lump of land. Ipomoea is good at shading sunny terraces or gazebos.
Whole, arrow-shaped at the base, leaves on long petioles are alternately located on strong, slightly twisted stems. From mid-June to mid-autumn, stalks wrapping around any support are covered with funnel-shaped flowers. The corolla of the morning glory flower is formed by fused petals with a pentagonal limb; this shape is also called the “gramophone”.
Thick shoots and a large number of flowers make it possible for me to turn into a solid green carpet, which can cover not only arbors and balconies, but also old fences, peeling walls. Green figures or “huts” from bindweed are very beautiful.
On the dial of the "flower clock" morning glory Ipomoea takes the first place - its flowers bloom earlier than other plants. For this they got the name “morning glory” in England. Long pedicels during the day can rotate many times - this way beautiful flowers always look at the sun. Flowering occurs in July and lasts until the first frost. In the country of the rising sun, Japan, the plant is called Askagao, which also means "glory of the morning." Breeders bred many varieties of morning glory.
Different varieties differ from each other in the shape and color of the flowers. If earlier we mostly met morning glory purple or red-blue, now you can find flowers of any color.
The same can be said about the shape of the flower itself: in the morning glory of the purple double terry, the corolla petals form several rows, and the violin-shaped morning glory has large creamy white flowers with a purple spot in the corolla tube. New varieties have a flower diameter of about 10 cm. Heavenly Blue is a real treasure for gardeners. Huge gramophone. The color of the corolla is sky-blue or violet, and its central part is white with yellow.
The wild relative of morning glory is a field bindweed or popularly called a birch. All summer residents know this weed, whose roots are not easy to get rid of. In its flowers, leaves and creeping stalk, it repeats exactly the cultural morning glory. One plant forms up to 600 slowly germinating seeds. Distributed everywhere: the European part, Crimea, the Caucasus, all of Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia.
Surely, not everyone knows that abroad there are relatives of our weed, such as morning glory pitted and ivy. They are common in Latin America. Ipomoea pitted is noted in Japan, and ivy is a malicious weed in most states, noted in the UK and Israel. They clog all agricultural land and uncultivated land in violation of the phytocenosis.
The species of morning glory can be determined only by seed, each species has its own characteristics. Ipomoea has a fossiform seed scar that is horseshoe-shaped, large, smooth, and with Ipomoea, the ivy seed scar is also horseshoe-shaped, but covered with hard hairs.
Types of morning glory
Morning glory moonflower
Earlier, the Calonyction was classified as a separate genus, now the genus is included in the genus Ipomoea, subgenus Quamoclit, section Calonyction and is known as Ipomoea alba. Morning glory Ipomoea is a type of morning glory flowering. Although Ipomoea is luniflowering in nature - perennial plants, but in the conditions of central Russia they bloom in the year of sowing and do not winter. Their growth stops at an air temperature below 10 ° C: the flowers are smaller, the plants turn brown, and they have to be removed.
Grassy, heavily branching vine, more than 3 m in height, with shoots up to 6 m long, bearing large, heart-shaped below, three-lobed leaves in the upper part of the shoots, which create a water and lightproof cover.
The seeds of this variety (however, like the seeds of other representatives of this genus) have a dense shell, therefore, to increase the likelihood of germination, they must be scarified. Namely: it is enough to soak the seeds in warm water for 24 hours before planting on seedlings or in open ground. During this time, the seed coat should crack, and the seeds of some varieties can even give small 1-1.5 mm seedlings.
In the open field is often grown due to the spectacular, with a pleasant aroma, large (up to 10 cm) white flowers. Sometimes flowers can reach a diameter of 13-16 cm. It is worth trying to grow this plant on a windowsill, especially since it is easy and interesting.
The only problem that may arise is a spider mite attack. But now on sale there are many drugs to combat it. The plant sprouts incredibly quickly and is gaining green mass right before our eyes. It is necessary to create supports in time, to direct and tie up the liana-shaped stems so that they are not damaged and in the future could become a healthy basis for the development of buds. Flowers bloom like this: in the evening the buds suddenly startle and unfold right before our eyes!
The petals are folded, like a canopy of an umbrella - canes, and straightened with a quiet rustle. Finally, a soft clap is heard, and the whisk sharply opens with a tea saucer, like a dome of the same umbrella. And what a smell! Something sweet-almond, with a hint of freshness, very difficult to describe ... Flowering lasts until the next morning, after which the flower fades sharply. In the open field in cloudy weather they are open all day.
Flowering time: from July-August until the first frost. Introduced into the culture since 1773.
Location: prefers moist rich loam, but also grows well on any nutrient soil.
Care: Requires strong supports. Responsive to warm water and top dressing. Pests and diseases are rare.
Breeding: by seeds, sowing in May, directly into the ground. Seeds are scarified or soaked for a day in warm (25-30 ° C) water. Shoots appear in 5-10 days. In the first three months after sowing, plants grow very slowly. Often, Ipomoea luniflowering does not have time to ripen seeds. To obtain them, twigs with larger fruits are cut off and, tied in a bunch, dried first in the sun, and then indoors. Then the fruit is peeled, the seeds are stored in paper bags.
Propagated moonflower and layering. In summer, all shoots that appear near the root neck, without separating from the plant, are pin, leaving only the tops not dusted on the surface. After a month and a half, layering takes root. Before the frost, the buried shoots are transplanted into pots and brought into the greenhouse or covered with foliage for the winter. Wintered plants in spring can be blackened. Vegetatively propagated plants bloom in late July.
Using: in the landings around the gazebos, at the entrance to the house, on the lattice windows, trellises. Usually this vine is planted near theaters, bars, discos, visited in the evening. Moonflower is a plant of night.
Morning glory tricolor
When grown, Ipomoea tricolor - Ipomoea tricolor, is often confused with Ipomoea violacea, in fact it is different, albeit related species. Numerous varieties of Ipomoea tricolor with various flower colors were not in vain chosen for use in decorative gardening.
Widely used varieties:
- Blue Star
- Flying saucers
- Sky blue, sky blue enhanced
- Pearl Gate
- Summer sky
- Wedding bells
- Morning call
- Rainbow flash
The popular variety “Morning Call” has flowers with a diameter of about 10 cm. Sky blue is a variety that also cannot be ignored. This is truly a treasure for the gardener. Flowers in diameter up to 10 cm, with sky blue or purple color of corollas and white with a yellow central part, fascinate with its beauty. The flowers of the Pearl Gate variety are milky white with a bright yellow center. The surface of the bright blue gramophone Flying Saucers is streaked with white strokes running from the center of the funnel to its edges.
The Sky Blue variety received a prize from the Royal Horticultural Society.
America is considered to be the birthplace of the plant, where it is perennial, but in the middle zone of Russia it is grown as an annual. Curly, with branched stems reaching 4-5 m in height. Oppositely located leaves, large, heart-shaped or ovoid-heart-shaped, glabrous, wrinkled, located on elongated petioles. Funnel-shaped flowers, 3-4 flowers are collected in a bunch, sky-blue, with a white tube, 8-10 cm in diameter, purple-pink in bloom.
Each flower blooms for one day. The flowers are open from morning to noon, in some varieties - almost to 17 hours. In cloudy weather, flowers are open all day. The fruit is a cone-shaped box. Seeds are dark, elongated, slightly convex, they germinate for 2-4 years. In a culture since 1830.
Morning glory is one of the most decorative and common curly annuals. It blooms profusely from July to October. It has garden forms and varieties with a striped whisk.
Ipomoea Lopastnaya, Ipomoea Mina Lobata, Spanish flag - Ipomoea lobata. Previously included in the genus Quamoclit, now merged into the common genus Ipomoea.
Homeland: Southern Mexico.
Unusual spectacular tropical annual with strong reddish twisting stems 1.5-3 m tall with heart-shaped three-lobed leaves and three thin stipules near each leaf. Flowers, like drops (each flower up to 2 cm long), in unilateral spike-shaped inflorescences 15-25 cm long all the time seem closed. They are first red, then orange, then gradually turn lemon yellow to creamy white.
A striking multi-color effect. In one inflorescence there are up to 12 flowers of different colors. Stamens and pestle protrude from the open pharynx of the flower. Flowering time: from the beginning of August to the end of October, and with warm autumn - until the first frost. Introduced into the culture since 1841.
Morning glory bright red
Ipomoea bright red, "star-beauty", Fire red quamoclite - Ipomoea coccinea. Previously included in the genus Quamoclit, now merged into the common genus Ipomoea.
An annual liana from Central and South America, where it naturalized, up to 3 m high, with thin stems, heart-shaped leaves 5-10 cm long and tubular, about 1 cm in diameter, scarlet flowers, yellowish in the throat. Flowering time: end of June - July. However, she quickly loses her decorativeness. Already in August, the seeds ripen, and the entire vegetative mass blackens. More spectacular with its deeply cut into three to five blades of dark green foliage quamoclite fiery red ivy (var. Hederifolia). The flowers are larger than a typical species. The decorative period is longer.
Ipomoea Bright red is often confused with Ipomoea quamoclit, as their flowers are similar.
Cirrus quamoclite, "cypress liana" - Ipomoea quamoclit. Previously included in the genus Quamoclit, now merged into the common genus Ipomoea.
A winding vine, introduced from the tropics of Central and South America in 1629, now naturalizing from Virginia to Missouri. These are annual or perennial, herbaceous, climbing plants reaching a height of up to 3 m. The bright green leaves of Ipomoea Kvamoklit resemble fern or cypress.
Rapid growth plant: during one growing season reaches 2.5 m in height. The flowers are numerous star-shaped, from 2 to 3 cm. Usually corollas are carmine-red, but variations with white and pink flowers are known. Flowering time: from August to late autumn.
Kvamoklit Sloter, Cardinal liana - Ipomoea sloteri. Previously included in the genus Quamoclit, now merged into the common genus Ipomoea.
Homeland: Central and South America.
A delicate hybrid annual with thin curly shoots up to 1.5 m high, shiny palmately dissected leaves 5-7 cm long and intensely red (like a cardinal mantle) blooming in the morning flowers. Bending diameter 2-2.2 cm, tube length 3.5 cm. Flowering time: July-September. Seed is tied up a little.
Location: sunny; sand and humus garden soil.
Care: supports are needed, shoots are tied up and guided. Moderate watering, weekly dressing until August. Pests, diseases: spider mites.
Breeding: Ipomoea lobed and Sloter in central Russia during warm spring are sown with seeds at the end of April, but no later, since the seeds do not have time to ripen, or seedlings when sown in boxes in March and then dived and planted in the open ground when frosts pass. Fire red kvamoklit can be sown in soil in April-May. Ipomoea cirrus - seeded in open ground in late April - early May for a permanent place in the grooves at a distance of 5 cm from each other. He does not tolerate transplants! Ipomoea Sloter propagated by seed in open ground from late April.
Using: for the design of vases, baskets, balconies. Using it in wall plantings, you can achieve a complete decoration of the walls. Suitable for creating flower pyramids. Bright flowers are good for cutting. Cardinal liana is especially good in compositions of the first plan on various arched small forms.
Caution! The plant is poisonous.
Ipomoea nil - Ipomoea nil.
Comes from the tropics of the Old World. Japanese name asagao (in translation - "morning face").
This short lived perennial vine is cultivated as an annual. Its stems strongly branch and grow faster than in other species, reaching a length of 2.5-3 m. The leaves are opposite, broadly oval or heart-shaped, long-leaved. The flowers are also funnel-shaped, but larger than the previous species, their diameter is 10 cm, pink, red, sky blue, lavender, purple and dark blue with a white pharynx.
Like Ipomoea ivy, flowers live one day and are open from morning until noon. Flowering - from mid-summer to autumn. In the plants of the Morning Call mix, the flowering is especially early (from the end of June) and plentiful.
A huge contribution to the process of creating new varieties was made by the Japanese. The plant entered the Land of the Rising Sun from mainland China during the Nara era, which, according to the Japanese calendar, corresponds to the period from 710 to 784. At first, asagao was perceived by the Japanese only as a medicine, but in the Edo era (1615-1868) it became truly a cult.
While Europeans were crazy about tulips and carnations, the Japanese were struck by a passion for bindweed. Peaks of hobby fell on 1804-1829 and 1848-1860. This love turned out to be timeless, and nowadays in Japan, the morning glory is still actively bred and improved. In the short-lived perennial wild ancestor asagao, flowers are funnel-shaped blue-blue.
For several centuries, the Japanese changed the appearance of wild blue morning glory beyond recognition.And if earlier the emergence of a new variety was a fluke, now asagao hybridization is put on a scientific basis: the latest methods for producing mutants are applied, genotyping of large sections of DNA is carried out, and summaries of recessive and dominant genes are compiled. Every year, more and more unusual new products appear, and the total number of varieties and lines of asagao has long been measured in hundreds.
Varieties differ mainly in color, size and shape of flowers and leaves.
The color of the corolla is white, pink, red, blue, violet, two-colored with a fringing, spots, stripes of a different color than the background. Asagao chimera flowers and flowers painted in brownish tones are very appreciated.
There are large-flowered varieties (corolla diameter 15–20 cm), varieties with an average corolla size (diameter 7–15 cm) and small-flowered varieties (diameter 6 cm or less). In the shape of the corolla, more than 20 different asagao groups are distinguished. Flowers are simple and double. No less diverse are the leaves of asagao. They can be rounded, reminiscent in shape of leaves of willow, ivy, maple and so on. There are white-green and yellow-leaved varieties.
Asagao is bred in Japan mainly in a pot culture as an annual plant, the liana is formed in the form of a “bush” with the help of pinches, the first of which is made over the 6th real leaf. Pots with a diameter of 15-20 cm are filled with fertile loose soil.
Sometimes for plants establish supports from thin bamboo shoots. Asagao is grown on the sunniest window sills and terraces. Plants are propagated primarily by seeds (seeds of especially “advanced” varieties are not cheap, the price can reach $ 8 for one 1 piece).
The flowers of some forms of asagao are sterile, plants in this case are propagated by rooting of shoots (they root very easily, for example, in a glass of water).
The mild maritime climate, the abundance of moisture and solar heat, and fertile soil allow the Japanese to grow the most diverse and ornamental plants, including asagao, for almost the entire year. Is it possible to grow a heat-loving Japanese morning glory in Central Russia? Yes, but plants must be located near the south side of the house. The most affordable variety of Ipomoea Nile y us is “Chocolate”. When growing Ipomoea Nile, one must be prepared for the fact that in the case of a cold and rainy summer, flowers will most likely not be enjoyed.
Asagao is one of the favorite symbols of Japanese art, including traditional Hoku poetry. The Japanese are convinced that the truly beautiful lies in the fleeting, unique, laconic. This idea pervades the entire culture of Japan.
Japanese Hoku poem written by 17th century classic Basho Matsuo.
Asagao-ni tsurube torarate, mora-mizu.
The glory of morning glory over night wrapped a bucket in the well.
Do not tear the fleeting beauty ?!
I’ll go to the neighbors to get water to wash my face.
The poem plays with words. Asagao - “morning face”, “face in the morning” - this is the name of the flower - Ipomoea - and the reason to go to the well in the morning is to wash your face. The hero of the poem went to the well to wash his face, and a morning glory of morning glory over a bucket. And to use it, you have to tear the flower.
The hero of the poem, who is anxious about the quickly passing beauty of a flower, regrets it, decides to go to the neighbors for water. A very elegant, refined poem, reflecting a reverent attitude to nature, to feelings, to life and all living things.
Ipomoea ivy - Ipomea hederacea
Homeland - tropical America.
An annual liana with a curly branched stem 2-3 m long and large heart-shaped, three-lobed leaves, similar to ivy leaves. Her flowers are funnel-shaped, up to 5 cm in diameter, sky-blue, as well as pink, purple and red, 2-3 of them are collected on a long peduncle.
They are open from early morning until midday, then they fade, but the next morning, new ones open. Flowering from July to mid-autumn. In culture since 1600, is rare
It has garden forms with larger blue flowers with a white border, white or dark purple flowers with a white border. Растений Roman Candy ’plants have variegated, white-green leaves, cherry flowers with a white throat, stems 120-150 cm long.
Morning glory purple
Ipomoea purpurea - Ipomea purpurea
Homeland - tropical America.
Perennial liana with a strong and low branching stem, cultivated as an annual. The stems reach 8 m in length. Leaves are heart-shaped, three-lobed, on long petioles. Stems and leaves shortly pubescent. The flowers are large, with a diameter of up to 4-7 cm, bell-shaped, funnel-shaped, collected 2-5 on long pedicels growing from the axils of the leaves. Colors - pink, red, purple, dark lilac to blue.
The inside of the funnel-shaped corolla is always painted white. This purple morning glory differs from the closest relative, the morning glory, in which the center of the flower is always yellow.
In clear weather, flowers open early in the morning, and at 11 o’clock in the morning they are already closed, in cloudy - they are open until 14 o’clock. Flowering begins in July and continues until autumn frosts. The fruit is a rounded capsule with 2-4 large seeds.
In culture since 1621. It has terry and variegated forms. The varietal variety of this most common and unpretentious morning glory is quite large, and in recent years very interesting new items have appeared. The varieties of morning glory of purple are known: Milky Way, Scarlett O’Hara, Grandfather Otts, Kniola’s Black Knight, Star of Yalta, SplitPersonality, Sunrise Serenad, Caprice.
Interesting red variety Scarlett O’Hara. In plants of the Star Scarlet variety, cherry flowers with a white star in the center and white edges, flowering are especially plentiful.
The soil: they prefer loose, nutritious calcareous soil; they “fatten” on well-fertilized soil to the detriment of flowering. Water stagnation, these vines do not tolerate.
Care: Vines are grown with constant watering and top dressing with full mineral fertilizer with a low nitrogen content - its excess causes the growth of green mass to the detriment of flowering. For all types of morning glory, supports from vertically stretched wires, fishing line, wire or mesh are needed, around which stems will wrap around. And only the Roman Candy variety of Ipomoea ivy is used as an ampel plant for warm, protected places. With sufficient land in drawers, morning glory grows well on balconies and loggias of a southern or southeastern orientation.
Breeding: sowing seeds in May to a permanent place of 2-3 seeds per hole or in peat-humus pots in March-April for seedlings. The optimum temperature for germination is 18 degrees. Seeds must be soaked for 24 hours. Those that are not swollen are punctured with a needle and soaked again. Shoots appear after 6-14 days. Plant transplants are poorly tolerated, therefore, when transplanting seedlings into large pots (made twice), they always preserve a lump of earth with roots.
A twig is inserted into each pot, along which the plant will curl, otherwise the stems will mess up and break when they try to disassemble them. Seedlings are necessarily planted with a lump of earth, maintaining a distance between plants of 15-20 cm. You can also propagate layering, cuttings, division of rhizomes.
Use of morning glory
Ipomoea is good to shade sunny terraces or verandas, plant them along a mesh fence and close the site from prying, prying eyes. You can just plant the house on the south side, entwine the southern windows, and the microclimate in the house will become more favorable - cool and humid, and the boards that house the house on the outside will not dry out. On a long-mastered plot with the help of a trellis with morning glory, you can separate the garden or vegetable garden, household plot or parking lot for a car. And it will be the most beautiful fence.
If you plant morning glory with a table and benches, you get a cozy place to relax. Arches of bent metal rods above the path to the house, twined with morning glory, turn this path into a green corridor. It is even easier to build such an arch above the gate at the entrance to the site, decorate the porch or balcony.
Ipomoea can be planted in the flower garden. With their help, they break the flat space of a large flower garden, which makes it more picturesque. From morning glory you can create various green figures or a fountain with jets-stems scattering in all directions or directed in one direction. And all that is needed for this is the support of the appropriate form and your imagination.
A very interesting option is to use green and dried trees as supports. Here, unlimited opportunities for creativity open up to the creation of works of art. The branches of fruit or forest trees can be attached with a wire to pipes driven into the ground, and then entwined with morning glory.
Today, there is a huge selection of morning glory seeds. The plants grown from them are characterized not only by the most diverse shape and size of the flower, leaves, but also by the duration and intensity of flowering, the time of the onset of flower opening. You can also buy the most unimaginable mixtures of morning glory seeds, resulting in a riot of colors in your garden, in the country, and even on the city balcony.
Possible problems with growing morning glory
Yellow and spotted morning glory leaves of bright red may be a sign of damage to the plant aphids. Pests pierce the covers of the leaf blade, suck the juices out of the plants and secrete honey dew. Sooty fungi settle on honey dew. If a bright red aphid is found on morning glory, treat the plant with a suitable systemic insecticide.
If a plant grows at night in conditions of low air temperature and suffers from a lack of magnesium in the soil, then the leaves of morning glory bright red turn white and are deformed. Increase the temperature and plant the plant in fertile soil.
Dots and thin cobwebs on the leaves are a sign of damage to the plant by spider mites. Spray the leaves with water.
Personal observations when growing morning glory
In the first photo, my last year's Ipomoea Flying Saucers (Ipomoea Flying Saucers). Bloomed to the very frosts. Since it was planted under an apple tree, it braided its trunk with lush green so that it was completely invisible, and when magnificent flowers appeared, and even "on the apple tree" - it was just a miracle!
A completely unpretentious plant, and the transplant is not so bad. This year, I bought and sowed along the fence of varieties of 8. We all went to growth, already each sprout has some real leaves.
The amazing fact about morning glory
Sweet Potato - Ipomoea batatas. This type of morning glory is known as a vegetable plant - sweet potato. Many have heard of him, few have tried it, and even fewer who know that Batat is also Ipomoea.
Sweet potato is a grassy vine with creeping lashes, rooting in nodes, up to 5 meters long. The height of the bush is 15-18 cm. The lateral roots of the sweet potato are very thickened and form tubers with white, yellow, orange, pink, cream, red or purple edible flesh. One tuber weighs from 200 g to 3 or more kg.
Leaves are heart-shaped or palmate-lobed, on long petioles.
Flowers sit in the axils of the leaves; corolla large, funnel-shaped, pink, pale lilac or white. Many varieties do not bloom. Cross-pollination, mainly by bees. Flowering in the temperate zone is rare.
The fruit is a four-seed box; seeds are black or brown, with a diameter of 3.5-4.5 mm.