This plant has been known to mankind since very ancient times. The earliest mention of beans in the ancient monuments dates back to the II millennium BC. uh. It was eaten in ancient China. And the archaeologists discovered the first bean seeds while working on the excavation of monuments of pre-Inca culture in Peru. This plant was common among the ancient Incas and Aztecs, and the ancient Greeks and Romans used beans not only for food, but also as a medicine. The Slavs met with beans around the 11th century.
© Carl E Lewis
Common Beans - A plant from the legume family. Beans came to Europe from the New World in the 16th century, where it was called "Italian beans", and to Russia - two centuries later, probably from Poland. Unripe bean shoulder blades of vegetables are eaten.
There are dozens of recipes for delicious and nutritious bean dishes, many of which are considered delicious. Salads and soups are prepared from beans and pods, they are served with fried meat, salted, dried, and marinated.
Depending on the structure of the beans, bean varieties are divided into shelling (with a coarse thick parchment layer), semi-sugar (with a weak), sugar or asparagus (no parchment layer). The most valuable varieties, like peas, are considered sugar varieties. Bean beans are an important raw material for the canning industry. For preserving whole beans (shoulder blades), sugar bean varieties are used that do not have a leathery film in the wall of the bean leaves.
Under the crops of beans, the soil is prepared in the fall. During this period, phosphate (250-300 g superphosphate per 10 m2) and potash (120-150 g per 10 m2) fertilizers must be added. It is useful to add organic matter if necessary. After that, the soil is dug up. In the spring, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are also brought in for carts or humus. Once again, the soil is dug deep enough.
Curly bean varieties grow well with trellis. The methods for preparing trellis are the most diverse, depending on the capabilities, but their height should be 2.5-3 m. Above the beds inside the frame, you can install arcs and cover the crops with film if there is a danger of frost. Many amateur vegetable growers use buildings, fences, verandas, balconies, arbors, etc. as trellises.
In the early stages of sowing, bean seeds are soaked in warm water. Then they germinate by putting them in gauze bags for several days until the seeds bite (the beginning of germination).
In our zone, beans are sown at the end of the first - beginning of the second decade of May. Seeds are planted to a depth of 3-4 cm, and the distance between rows is 8-10 cm. Beans under the film emerge and develop much faster. The film is completely removed in the first decade of June, by this time the side shoots (lashes) of the bean are already developing.
Bush beans are grown even easier. Previously sprouted bean seeds are sown in a prepared way in an ordinary way. The distance between rows is set at 40-50 cm, and plants in rows are placed at 8-10 cm. Beds with bush beans are also well covered with a film. Under it, moisture is retained and the soil warms up faster. In hot weather, if you do not want to remove the film, it can be obscured by sprinkling with a solution of chalk or a chatter from the ground.
The undoubted advantage of beans - amazing unpretentiousness.
This is a thermophilic and photophilous plant, but they are grown by directly sowing seeds in the soil in late May - early June. It is possible to set the planting time of the beans more precisely on their own, they are sown simultaneously with cucumbers, that is, when you can no longer be afraid of frost.
Beans grow best on light, fertile, drained soil. Before planting in the garden make humus or compost. Bush beans are grown on ridges in three rows and planted in a checkerboard pattern. When sowing, two pre-soaked grains are put into the hole to a depth of 3-6 cm (depending on the mechanical composition of the soil, deeper on the lungs). The distance between the holes is 20–30 cm, the rows are 30–45 cm.
Before sowing semi-curly and curly bean varieties, it is necessary to establish strong supports from stakes or wooden slats (plastic and metal are not suitable, since the plant will not be able to “catch on” them) 2–2.5 m high. A hole is made next to each support in which 2 grains are placed at a depth of 5 cm. The distance between the holes is 15 cm. To give stability to the stems, the sprouts that have sprouted are spud.
Shoots appear after 5-7 days, they are very sensitive to frost. When there is a threat of cooling, seedlings are covered with spanbond or other covering material. Adult plants can withstand short-term light frosts. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of plants is 20–25 ° С.
Bean care consists in regular weeding, watering (during hot, dry weather) and loosening of row-spacings. To minimize watering and weeding, the soil can be mulched. Beans (shoulder blades) are harvested in two to three weeks from the beginning of flowering.
There are many varieties of beans, and all of them are suitable for growing young pods, and for grain. Varieties Saks 615, Zolotaya Gora and others are widespread in the middle lane. Of the original types of beans, Lima and Lobia can be called.
Among the ripe bush sugar varieties of beans, experts note: Saxa without fiber, Triumph Sugar, Dialog, News, Sugar 116. These varieties use young (8-10-day) spatula beans for food. They are completely stewed, canned, frozen.
Among the shelling varieties, the most interesting are Generous, Gribovskaya 92, Belozernaya, Pale-motley. Grain is used for peeling bean varieties.
Characteristics of Some Bean Varieties
Curly vegetable - precocious variety of beans with curly stems requires mandatory garter. Bean (pod) in the phase of technical ripeness of yellow color, 12 - 13 cm long, smooth, round in section. 8 to 9 beans (pods) are formed on the plant. The growing season is 67 - 72 days.
Harmony - mid-season variety of curly beans. The period from seedlings to technical ripeness 65 - 85 days. A plant 3 to 3.5 m long requires support for growth. Beans long 20 - 25 cm, round, slightly curved, without parchment, yellow. Mature seeds of elongated kidney shape, white. Universal use.
Gribovskaya 92 - medium early grain grade of beans, the period from seedlings to biological ripeness 90 - 110 days. Bean plant is medium-branched, 20 - 45 cm high. Xiphoid beans with a parchment layer, 12 - 15 cm long.
Crane 9906061. The bean variety is included in the State Register for the Russian Federation for garden plots, household plots and small farms. It is recommended for use in home cooking and in the canning industry.
Early ripe. Bean plant bush, height 40 - 52 cm. Green leaves. The flower is medium sized, white. The beans are slightly curved, cross-section elliptical to ovoid, without parchment and fiber. The attachment height of the lower beans is 19-21 cm. The taste of canned products is excellent. The yield of beans is 0.9 - 1.3 kg / m. Seeds are elliptical, white, white hem, weight of 1000 seeds 290 - 320 g. The variety is resistant to bacteriosis.
Zoryushka - The bean bush is compact, compressed, 27 - 33 cm high. The flowers are pale lilac. The bean is slightly curved, spiky, light green, 10-11 cm long, 0.8-0.9 wide, 0.7-0.9 cm thick, 1.3 cm from the tip of the lower bean to the soil. Bean mass 5, 5 - 6 g. Beans contain 8.5 - 10% solids, 1.7 - 2% sugars, 18 - 21 mg% vitamin C, the taste of canned beans 4.3 - 4.6 points. Seeds in the phase of biological ripeness are light yellow, oval. It is resistant to bacteriosis, as well as to low positive temperatures.
The contractor - An early (45 - 50 days) variety of vegetable beans, a bush plant up to 50 cm high, green beans with purple touches, up to 20 cm long, seeds are light brown.
Nomad - a variety of curly beans obtained by selection in the Kaluga and Moscow regions from the Sukhumi sample. The variety is medium early, the bean is short of medium width, ovate in cross section. The main color of the grain is ocher, the pattern is motley pale purple. The plant is slightly affected by anthracnose in open ground and medium gray rot when grown in a greenhouse. In the greenhouses of the Moscow region. bears fruit until the end of October.
Oily Earliest 273 - an early ripe bean variety (75 - 90 days). The bush is medium-branched, compact, erect, 25-30 cm high. The flowers are light purple, the beans are straight, flat-rounded, small. Seeds are round-elliptical, black. Relatively resistant to anthracnose and bacteriosis.
Fire Red (winner). High-yielding fiberless bean variety. The beans are dark green, flat, up to 30 cm long. The seeds are colored.
Oran. Early ripening (79 - 90 days) grade of grain beans. Bush plants with a height of 35 - 54 cm. Grain digestibility is uniform, the taste is excellent.
Welt - Forms a bean bush with 15 - 27 sugar beans, Resistant to anthracnose and ascochitosis. Green beans without parchment layer and fibers, 11 - 13 cm long, cylindrical in shape with 5 - 6 grains. Seeds are pink with a lilac streak. Beans are used in cooking and for canning.
Rebus 99004000. Bean variety is included in the State Register for the Russian Federation for garden plots, household plots and small farms. Recommended for use in home cooking. Early ripe. The plant is a bush, slightly leafy, 35 to 40 cm high. The flowers of the medium-sized bean are pink. Beans are straight to slightly bent, the xiphoid on the cross section is elliptical to ovoid, without parchment layer and fiber. The taste of canned products is good.
Pink. High-yielding mid-season variety of curly beans. Climbing plant, 3 - 3.5 m long, requires support for growth. The beans are long, marbled pink, xiphoid, without parchment and fibers, each with 6 to 10 grains. Ripe kidney bean seeds of elongated kidney shape, pink with purple stains and strokes. Universal use.
Second - The plant is bushy, compact. The bean stalk is green, 30 - 39 cm long. Unripe beans are cylindrical, without parchment layer and fibers, green, 10-12 cm long. There are 5-6 seeds of yellow-brown color in the bean. Designed for use in food beans in green after heat treatment.
Tara - bush, vegetable bean variety with a period up to the first harvest of 60 - 72 days. Plant height 30 - 40 cm. Beans, without parchment layer and fibers. Variety bred in Poland. Zoned in 1998 in the Central region. For use in home cooking, canning industry and for freezing.
Tiraspol - mid-season variety of asparagus bean breeding of the Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture. The bush is 30 to 35 cm high. The flowers are white. The bean is green, 11–13 cm long, 0.9–1 wide, rounded, without parchment and fibers, straight or slightly curved. the distance from the tip of the lower bean to the soil is 1 - 2 cm. The mass of the bean is 6 - 6.5 g. The beans contain 8.5 -10% solids, 2.2 - 2.5% sugars, 18 - 40 mg% vitamin C the taste of beans 3.9 - 4.2 points. Resistant to bacteriosis.
Anniversary 287. The plant is bushy, compact, 30 to 35 cm high. The bean is straight straw yellow, juicy, fleshy. The parchment layer and fiber in the beans are missing. There are 9-12 beans on a bean plant, 9-13 cm long. The taste is excellent. Seeds are white with pink touches.
Esperanto - A bush 31 to 44 cm high. White flowers of 2 to 4 pairs in a brush. The bean is slightly curved or straight, rounded across the cross, green, 8-12 cm long, 0.9-1 wide, without parchment layer and fibers, the distance from the tip of the lower bean to the soil is 4-5 cm. The bean mass is 6.5 g. 9 to 13 beans are formed in the plant. Beans contain 8 - 11% solids, 2 - 2.6% sugars, 19 - 31 mg% vitamin C, Protein 2.1 - 2.7%, fiber 0.8 - 1, the taste of canned beans 4.1 - 4 , 6 points. It is resistant to bacteriosis, as well as to low positive temperatures.
Violet -mid-season curly bean variety. Beans are long, without parchment layer, rounded flat, slightly curved, purple, in each of 6 - 10 grains. Ripe kidney bean seeds with elongated kidney shape, light brown. Universal use.
Beans are often used for dietary nutrition for diseases, diseases of the kidneys, liver, bladder, heart failure, and diabetes. At the same time, the variety of gastronomic consumption of beans is very wide - soups, cereals, side dishes are prepared from beans and other legumes, they are canned, crushed for the production of flour.
There are highly nutritious salad varieties of beans. In general, beans are a waste-free crop, legumes themselves and straw from them are an excellent vitamin feed for cattle.
Traditional medicine, too, has long used the healing properties of this culture. For example, a decoction of bean seeds or pods is used as a diuretic for edema of renal origin or because of heart failure.
Nevertheless, not everyone can eat bean dishes. Elderly people are better off abstaining from them, as beans cause bloating. Since it contains purines, it should not be eaten with gout and jade. Doctors do not recommend including beans in the diet for gastritis, peptic ulcer, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, and colitis.
However, beans reduce the risk of cancer. Scientists at the University of Colorado conducted an experiment in which rats were fed beans of those varieties that can be bought at a regular supermarket. By the end of the experiment, they found that the incidence of cancer in experimental animals decreased by almost 30%. In addition, in those rats that nevertheless developed cancer, the number of tumors was less than the average by more than 2 times.
Beans are so healthy and polysaturated that they are used even for cosmetic purposes. Beans make nutritious masks. Boiled, wiped through a sieve fruits in combination with lemon juice and vegetable oil give the skin the necessary nutrition, heal it, and eliminate wrinkles.