Increase in natural soil fertility by EM technology
- Part 1. A healthy garden without chemistry
- Part 2. Self-preparation of EM drugs
- Part 3. Increase in natural soil fertility by EM technology
Restoring and improving the natural fertility of the soil is a long process consisting of a set of works, one of which is saturation of the soil with humus using the “work” of EM crops. No need to wait for a miracle. In 1-2 years, if the soil is “sick” and neglected, there will not be much effect, although the yields of cultivated garden and other crops will increase. Darkening and the appearance of friability will testify to the recovery of the soil. Color will change actively forming humus. The soil will become more structured, less will melt away or dry out with a stony lump. Plants will become less sick.
The advantage of EM technology is that you can start work in any period of the warm season, provided that the soil temperature is + 8 ... + 10 ° C in a 10-15 cm layer (the zone of occurrence of the main root mass of garden crops).
In the 50s of the 20th century, large chemistry fell on agricultural fields, causing a short-term increase in the yield of crops. The increase in effective fertility caused by the introduction of non-conventional preparations (mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other substances) into the soil disrupted the natural ratio of living soil organisms, which translated the natural composition of “living soil” into plant food.
Gradually, the realization came that you can’t only take it, forcing the soil to be given in any way, without returning anything to it. Any working organism requires replenishment of the energy that it receives with food, and organic food is such food for the inhabitants of the soil. From here a biological (organic, permaculture and other methods) agricultural system was born, consolidated and received universal recognition today.
Not all of them are suitable for use in small summer cottages. The proposed method of improving and increasing the natural fertility of the soil using EM technology, is one of the most practical and low-cost. EM technology is convenient in that you can select the site and a comparative method to verify its effectiveness. Spring is coming - the most convenient time for laying an experimental field.
If the soil has been dug since the autumn and fertilizers are applied - it’s not a big deal. When warm weather sets in, as soon as the upper layer is shaken, we close the moisture. To reduce evaporation with a rake or a small cultivator, we level the blocks, grind the soil crust. At the same time, humus and compost can be introduced and repaired in the soil. The depth of tillage is not more than 7-10 cm.
We measure the soil temperature in the upper 10 cm layer. When heating the 8-10 cm layer to + 8 ... + 10 ° C, we water the ridges or the area reserved for planting vegetable and other garden crops with a working solution of the Baikal EM-1 preparation at the rate of 2-3 l / sq. m. If EM is introduced earlier, they will not work, will continue their sleepy state until warming, and the damp garden will be crushed. The concentration of the working solution is 1: 100. If the soil is severely depleted, a concentration of 1:10 can be used. In the first case, add 10 ml of the base solution to 10 liters of chlorine-free warm water, and in the second, 1.0 liter of the stock solution of the drug. Stir and water the soil. Immediately mulch. Mulching every time is required. This agricultural technique will slow down the evaporation of moisture, the soil should be moist, which will contribute to enhanced reproduction of EM. The use of EM solutions is carried out only on moist soil.
With an early culture, a week later you can sow or plant garden plants designated for cultivation.
With an average culture, after 10-12 days, we again spray the soil with a working (1.5-2.0 l / sq. M at a concentration of 1: 100) solution and after a week we sow or plant vegetables.
If the culture is late (seedlings, peppers, eggplant, middle and late tomatoes), then 5-6 days after the first application of EM, you can sow green manure, plant it as a green fertilizer or plant seedlings between green manure. In this case, cut the siderat so that it does not spread and use as a mulch with a low cut.
For the next and subsequent years in the spring (if not brought in the fall), you need to make compost or other mature organics (humus) at the rate of 1.0-10 kg / sq. depending on the level of soil organic food. Seal the organic layer in a 5-7 cm soil layer and pour 40 ml of the base preparation with a working solution of EM concentration of 1: 250 or 10 l of dechlorinated water. The flow rate of the working solution is 2-3 l / sq. m square. After 2 weeks, we plant or sow vegetables on prepared soil. We use spring sowing of green manure. Avoid contact of the root system of crops with EM solutions. There may be burns to the roots of plants.
During the summer period, systematically spray the plants with a working solution of 1: 1000 (10 ml of the base solution per bucket of water). Spraying crops with the gradual formation of the crop (cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplant, etc.) is repeated after 7-10 days, even absolutely healthy plants, spending 2-3 l / sq. m of land area. Potatoes can be sprinkled three times in phases of mass seedlings, before and after flowering. In case of pest damage, treatments are carried out with the same frequency as other crops. To protect against diseases and pests, spraying is carried out with working solutions EM-5.
Weeds in the aisles weed with a chopper, while simultaneously covering with a thin layer of soil. After weeding, the soil between the rows is poured with a working solution at a concentration of 1:50 - 1: 100 or per 10 liters of water, respectively 200 or 100 ml of the base preparation and mulched. If the plants have grown, then, so as not to burn them with a high concentration of the solution, the soil can be treated with a working solution of a lower concentration - 1: 1000 (as for plants). In this case, directly cut off weedy weeds are sprayed (dried up previously watered) and mulch the soil.
During the summer, EM can be fed with organic matter: make fresh compost in the row spacing with subsequent shallow incorporation into the soil. In order not to dry the soil and top dressing, after planting the compost, it is watered and mulched. You can use biological products "Planriz", "Humate" and others. Mineral fertilizers cannot be used, as well as pesticides for the treatment of plants. In addition to solutions based on the Baikal EM-1 preparation, only biological preparations made on a live basis of EM soil cultures can be used.
The basis of EM technology is autumn soil preparation. If in spring EMs can work freely for 2-3 weeks before planting, then in autumn this period increases to 1-2 months. For this period
- EM decompose organic matter, restore and increase humus reserves.
- Processing the roots, loosen the soil.
- Macro- and microelements available in plants are accumulated in the soil in the form of chelated salt forms.
- Suppressing the work of pathogenic microflora, heal the soil.
- Provoke seedlings of weeds, which are destroyed physically. In addition, the next wave of weeds is hatching in the soil. Falling under frost, the germinated embryos die, clearing the soil in the upper layer of excessive weed vegetation. Gradually, the number of weeds decreases, and under a 5-10 cm layer of mulch they practically disappear. But, we must understand and remember that for all changes it takes time. And not one year.
In autumn, the following work is carried out:
After harvesting, weed seedlings are provoked by watering and spraying the soil with a working solution of Baikal EM-1 or EM extract 1: 100 - 1: 250 (10 l of water / 100 or 40 ml of EM-base). The flow rate of the working solution is 1 l / sq. The last treatment is performed 2-3 weeks before the onset of constant frost. After treatment, it is desirable to cover the area with a film, which will accelerate the emergence of shoots of hard-like seeds. Sprouted weeds fall in the cold and die.
If there is organic biofertilizer (humus, biocompost), scatter them on the surface of the plot or beds (2-10 kg / sq. M area) and cover with a hoe or hand cultivator in the top 5-7 cm soil layer. Shredded green residues from cultivated crops can be used. Spill the EM solution on top at the rate of 2-3 liters per 1 sq. m working solution with a concentration of 1: 100 - 1: 250. For the preparation of working solutions, use basic solutions of EM-Baikal, EM-extract, EM-Urgasy.
In subsequent years, in the fall, constantly add organic matter. Moreover, you can gradually lower the application rate to 2-5 kg / sq. Organic fertilizers, other crushed biowaste can be embedded in the soil or literally sprinkled with 3-5 cm layer of soil. If the soil is dry, be sure to water and wet the soil, treat it with a working solution of EM at the rate of 1: 100 or 10 ml of water 100 ml of the base solution.
After tillage in a week, inoculate the area with any suitable crop, green manure. If you use this technique, then after mowing the green manure, cultivate the soil again with EM working solution embedded in green fertilizer and mulch the soil. You can leave the mowed green manure on the surface of the soil, but still treat it with a working solution, replenishing the soil with EMochki and humus of green fertilizer.
You can lay a winter garden by spilling each layer with a working solution with a concentration of 1: 100 or 1: 250, which is 10 and 100 ml of a base solution per 10 liters of water. Be sure to moisten the last layer of soil and pour 1: 100 EM solution on the wet layer and leave the bed until spring.
Soil cultivation with working solutions of EM-preparations (EM-Baikal, extract, Urgasy) within 3-4 years will significantly improve the soil, increase the content of humus, and, therefore, soil fertility, free from the abundance of malicious weeds. The use of only these drugs, only in such concentrations and only in the periods listed is not a dogma. With careful observation, you will find your optimal approach to biological farming. This is a mixed planting of vegetable and garden plants with compatible flower and medicinal crops. The use of decoctions and infusions of herbs, especially medicinal (thyme, yarrow, mint, nasturtium, dandelion, etc.).
Other biologics can be successfully used to restore soil fertility: baksib, radiance-2, radiance-3, rhizoplan, bacilon. Numerous biological products from fungal and bacterial diseases and pests will help to heal plants (increase their immunity) and destroy the epiphytotic damage to crops from diseases (trichodermin, phytosporin-M, bactofit, alirin, etc.) and pests (actofit, verticillin, nemabact, bitoxibacillin and other).
In biological farming, use all waste from the household, return it to the soil, saturate it with organic matter and it will thank you with crops of biologically pure products of enviable quality.