Annual lupins and their seasonal talents
Lupins perennial with their watercolor pastorality and beauty and foliage, and multi-colored inflorescences are familiar to everyone. But their annual brothers, whose species representation is much richer, remain in the shadow of garden favorites. Lupine fliers are perceived by many as mere siderats. The talents of the annual lupins are by no means exhausted only by improving their soil. A magnificent decoration and tirelessly flowering partners, such lupins prepared many pleasant surprises both in cultivation and in their decorativeness.
- Deprived non-winter hardy lupins
- Types and varieties of annual lupins
- Annual lupins in garden design
- Conditions Required by Annual Lupins
- Annual Lupine Care
- Reproduction of annual lupins
Deprived non-winter hardy lupins
Lupins are one of the most beloved and common herbaceous perennials. These plants, unique in their watercolors and picturesqueness, are able to equally successfully cope with a variety of design tasks and have become so familiar that all the lupins have long begun to be identified with the leader's view - multi-leaf lupine.
Meanwhile, in addition to endurance and attractiveness, their considerable diversity also belongs to the advantages of this culture. And although perennial lupins still retain the status of a favorite, they have almost forgotten about the unique annual species of this plant. Meanwhile, the lupine-flyers have something to brag about.
Annual lupins are herbaceous plants that form thick openwork bushes from erect, most often branched shoots, palm leaves on long petioles in the basal rosette and on short petioles - along the stems. The height of plants ranges from 15 cm to half a meter and more than 1 m in the largest species.
The color of the leaves ranges from grassy to emerald and grayish. The inflorescence brushes are inferior in size and density to perennial lupins, but stand out with much greater elegance. More dense, tiered or openwork, they are decorated with moth flowers. After flowering, beans are tied, which have time to ripen even in the middle lane. But fruiting stops flowering, and for annual lupins it is better to prevent it.
The color scheme of annual lupins is very diverse. It includes both a modest white and yellow color, and a variety of pastel shades, familiar to perennial lupins.
Like perennial lupins, annuals form a powerful rod root covered with bacterial nodules. But annual nutrients are superior to perennials in nutrient content in biomass and green manure properties.
Types and varieties of annual lupins
Unlike perennial lupins represented in regions with harsh winters with only one species - multilayer lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus), annual lupins are much more diverse. But among the seven plant species introduced into the culture, only 5 species are ranked as ornamental plants.
Among the highly decorative species of annual lupins are:
- Lupine Hybrid (Lupinus hybridus, or Lupinus x hybridus) is a “prefabricated” type of all hybrid forms of annual lupins, the most popular and widespread variety with a very representative palette of colors. Hybrid lupins are distinguished by increased bushiness, the beauty of leaves and inflorescences. Faceted, slender, straight shoots grow up to 1 m. The leaves are very beautiful, complex-palmate, with lanceolate or elongated-oval lobes, a silky surface and a muffled-grassy color. Irregular moth flowers are collected in dense brush inflorescences. The color scheme of hybrid lupins includes white, pink, blue, blue, red, purple, yellow tones in pure and different plain, two-tone or colorful combinations. Flowering hybrid lupins lasts from early summer to autumn.
- Lupine is volatile (Lupinus mutabilis) - a low, densely bushy openwork summer with razlogous bushes from openwork bright green leaves. Inflorescence brushes are very large, but quite loose. The color of the flowers changes as they bloom. Pale yellow flowers in the buds are decorated with the upper lilac, purple or blue petal, which gradually turns red.
- Lupine Hartweg (Lupinus hartwegii) - a more compact view with a maximum height of 60 cm with branched straight shoots and surprisingly beautiful leaves with a cold color. This is one of the best violet-blooming lupins, distinguished by a cylindrical form of inflorescence. Today there are varieties with light colors - white, pink or blue.
- Dwarf Lupine (Lupinus nanus) Is one of the most beautiful annual lupins. With a height of bushes from 15 cm to half a meter, the species is thick and compact. A long pillow of inflorescences crowns a beautiful pillow of grayish or bluish narrow-fingered leaves. This lupine is capable of producing numerous lateral shoots, but requires a loose fit. The lacy, graceful basic look captivates with bright ultramarine and cobalt colors with yellow spots. But the low lupins also have interesting light, pastel varieties. The view is also distinguished by its fragrance: the aroma of inflorescences reminds of sweet peas. Low lupine blooms from July to frost.
- Small lupine (Lupinus microcarpus) - a compact and more modest species with dense greenery and peduncles up to 30 cm high, crowned with a loose spikelet of two-tone white-lilac flowers, it is recognized as one of the best siderats, but today it is also found in the list of purely decorative summers.
Narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) Is one of the most famous fodder and green manure species that gardeners know simply as blue lupine. The stems of this lupine can grow up to 1.5 m, crowned with spectacular purple candles. His and two other types of annual lupins - lupine white (Lupinus albus) and lupine yellow (Lupinus luteus) - grown only as a green manure crop, using as green fertilizer.
They differ from each other not only in the color of the flowers: in yellow lupine, the leaves consist of 9 lobes, it is able to reach a meter height and is thermophilic, and in white lupine, leaves are five-leafed, grow to 1.5-2 m, it is more hardy, but also more exacting to soils. Blue and white lupins are self-pollinating species, but yellow is cross-pollinated.
Annual lupins in garden design
In the design of the garden, lupins-pilots use:
- in flower beds;
- in flower beds from summers;
- as a plant masking glades and voids;
- as a placeholder for empty soil when converting an old one or building a new garden;
- when changing the functional purpose of the soil (for example, the breakdown of flower beds at the garden site and vice versa, as the use of culture for "rest" of the soil)
- in the role of a flowering summer, increasing the quality of the soil on a flower bed or in a discount;
- to complement fragrant plants around the recreation area, terrace, near the house;
- to create background and color spots;
- as a cutting culture for live bouquets.
When grown as green manure, annual lupins are cut and harvested from the plantings during the appearance of the first buds.
Conditions Required by Annual Lupins
Non-frost resistant lupins are unpretentious to soils and conditions in general. These are photophilous cultures that can be planted only in a sunny area or at least in places with diffuse but bright lighting. The most spectacular flowering can be achieved by planting in fertile, light, loose soils of loamy or sandy loam type. The preferred soil reaction is slightly acidic or neutral.
Annual lupins are not afraid of windy areas, but plants in such places may need additional support.
Annual Lupine Care
Annual lupins, in contrast to perennial ones, cannot do without care. It is advisable to water these plants in a drought, otherwise a beautiful and prolonged flowering from the summer can not be achieved. It will take annual lupins and regular weeding, which is carried out with a frequency of at least 1 time per month. To simplify care and save yourself from additional procedures (or reduce their number) is possible by mulching the soil.
Fertilizing annual lupins is not needed, but on poor soils or if you wish to get more magnificent and colorful flowering for such lupins, it is advisable to carry out one fertilizing with full mineral fertilizers in standard dosage during the period of active growth or budding.
In order for lupine to bloom tirelessly from the beginning of summer until the first frosts, you will have to take care of the timely pruning of fading inflorescences.
Large and medium-sized bushes in open windy areas are best tied to supports in a timely manner.
Despite its siderat status, annual lupins are by no means invulnerable plants. Perennial lupins are very often affected by aphids, which spread rapidly over plantings and which are difficult to cope with without strong insecticides. Soil pests, nodule weevils, are also dangerous for these plants.
Reproduction of annual lupins
The only method of propagation of lupine-flyers is to grow them from seeds. At the same time, unlike other annual stars, lupins are never grown through seedlings.
Sowing annual lupins is always carried out in a permanent place. There are two cultivation strategies:
- Sowing in the winter, which allows for very early flowering;
- Sowing in early spring, after the threat of frost disappears (April-May).
Lupine seeds are not scattered along the grooves, but laid out in shallow holes at a distance of about 6-7 cm. 2-3 seeds are placed in one hole. After the emergence of seedlings, weaker plants are removed, leaving 1 plant in each well, and when true leaves appear, the shoots are thinned out, leaving 1 plant at a distance of 30 cm for all annual species except dwarf lupine (a rare planting at a distance of 50 cm between the bushes).