“Under the Future Harvest” - Autumn Garden Works
Of great importance is the autumn preparation of the soil for the future harvest, since it is extremely important to observe crop rotation, as well as the requirements of various crops for acidity and fertilizer.
When preparing beds from the autumn, it should be remembered that it is impossible to turn over a layer of earth, to break lumps formed during digging. This will not only contribute to the freezing of weed seeds and pests wintering in the soil, but also to the respiration of the soil.
Where necessary, invest in land during the autumn digging. In spring, this is more difficult to do, since not all plants tolerate lime well, and acidic soil inhibits their growth.
Soil acidity can be determined by the weeds prevailing in the garden. On acidic soils, horsetail, sorrel, plantain, mint, ivan da Maria, heather usually grow on weakly acidic and neutral soils, field bindweed, odorless chamomile, garden spine, coltsfoot, wheat grass creeping, clover.
When digging the soil make the necessary nutrients for those crops that need to be fertilized in the fall.
Manure is introduced in autumn or early spring. It all depends on what kind of culture you are going to grow.
For early vegetables (cabbage, potatoes), it is better to bring manure in the fall, and for later vegetables during early spring digging.
If in the spring you have to use fresh decomposed manure, then in these beds you can grow pumpkins, cucumbers. But onions, carrots, green crops are planted only in the second year after making manure.
In the fall, during the digging of the soil, it is better to introduce phosphate fertilizers, since it takes a long time for them to reach the roots. Beets are especially in need.
By mid-October, the planting of winter garlic is completed. At the end of the month, winter carrot, parsley, black onion, sorrel and other cold-resistant crops are sown. In November, all work in the garden is almost completed.
© Ted Percival
After harvesting vegetables and potatoes, it is imperative to restore order on the site, to scrub the fallen leaves and plant debris, otherwise they will become a source of the spread of diseases and pests. Healthy leaves are used to shelter perennial plants and flowers for the winter. Fallen leaves and grass can be a valuable fertilizer. To do this, they are stacked in large piles. In autumn and spring, heaps are shoveling. As soon as they cross, they can be used for vegetable crops.
With the help of foliage and grass waste, I arrange warm beds. First, remove the arable layer and lay the foliage. Then I put back the shot ground. During the winter, the leaves have time to overtake and become a good fertilizer. You can use foliage collected in the forest for this, but in no case from roadside lanes, since it contains carcinogens.
Rules for the preparation of greenhouses
In November, it is important to prepare the greenhouses for the new season. To this end, plant residues after harvesting vegetables need to be taken out and burned. Carefully inspect the room, close all cracks and gaps. Within 2-3 days, carry out aeration of greenhouses (sulfur blocks are burned at the rate of 50 g per 1 sq. M of greenhouse), process the roof inside the greenhouse, shelving, inventory with a solution of formalin with chlorophos (500 g of formalin and 50 g of chlorophos per 10 l of water) . For 1 square. m area spend 400 g of such a mixture. Instead of formalin, 400 g of bleach paste per 10 l of water can be used. After disinfection, rinse the roof inside the greenhouse, shelving and equipment with hot water.
Remember: frequent and plentiful watering in hotbeds and greenhouses promotes leaching of nutrients, and multiple top dressing contributes to the accumulation of ballast formations in the soil.
To ensure favorable conditions for plant growth, it is necessary to prepare fresh soil consisting of lowland peat (75%), medium loamy turf (25%) or 60% low peat, 20% turf, 20% manure or 70% low peat, 20 % dung humus, 10% sand. As loosening material, composts from waste chips, sawdust, bark and small chips can be added to soils up to 30%. When composting them, add 44 g of urea and 15 g of superphosphate to a bucket of fresh waste, mix everything thoroughly and put it in a stack for 2-3 months.
In winter, if possible, do not forget to collect wood ash, chicken droppings, which must be stored in boxes or barrels in a dry place. Oven ash neutralizes acid soil and significantly revitalizes the activity of beneficial microorganisms, in particular bacteria that enrich the soil with nitrogen. In the spring, ash is added to the furrows and holes at the rate of 100-200 g per 1 square. m