A collection of beautiful orchids
It is not surprising that from ancient times orchids were fanned by many legends and legends. At different times, the legend of orchids arose in China, where they are known from the 8th century BC. e., and in Latin America and later in Europe.
A beautiful legend about the origin of orchids originated in New Zealand. Maori tribes, fascinated by the beauty of orchids, were confident in their divine origin. Once upon a time, long before the appearance of people, the only visible parts of the earth were the snow-capped peaks of high mountains. From time to time, the sun thawed the snow, forcing the water to descend from the mountains in a stormy stream, forming amazing waterfalls. Those, in turn, rushed with seething foam towards the seas and oceans, after which, evaporating, they formed curly clouds. These clouds eventually completely obscured the view of the earth from the sun.
Once the sun wanted to pierce this impenetrable cover. Heavy tropical rain began. After him, a huge rainbow formed, hugging the whole sky. Admired by an unprecedented spectacle, the immortal spirits - then the only inhabitants of the earth - began to fly to the rainbow from all even the most distant lands. Everyone wanted to grab a spot on a multi-colored bridge. They pushed and scolded. But then everyone sat on a rainbow and sang together. Little by little, the rainbow caved in under their weight until it finally collapsed to the ground, scattering into a myriad of small colorful sparkles. Immortal spirits, hitherto not seen anything like it, with bated breath watched a fantastic multi-colored rain. Each piece of earth gratefully accepted the fragments of the sky bridge. Those that were caught by the trees turned into orchids. From this began the triumphal procession of orchids on the ground. Multi-colored lanterns became more and more, and no flower dared to challenge the right of the orchid to be called the queen of the flower kingdom.
© Forest & Kim Starr
Orchidaceae, or Orchis, also Orchids (lat. Orchidáceae) - the largest family of monocotyledonous plants.
Orchidaceae is an ancient family that appeared in the Late Cretaceous era.
Orchids are known primarily as flowering ornamental plants, are favorite greenhouse plants. The species of the genera Cattleya, Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis gained special popularity.
The fruits of creeper vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) are used as a valuable spice (“vanilla sticks”).
The tubers of the orchis and the palms of the grassroot are used in medicine.
Why is it believed that orchids are very demanding in the culture of plants? First of all, by the fact that they need a fairly high humidity. Orchids do not tolerate dry and dusty air.
Even 2-3 times spraying only temporarily increases humidity. It is best to grow orchids in indoor greenhouses.
All types of orchids, despite the general requirements for care, may differ in ease of cultivation. There are very moody orchids, but, which is very pleasing, there are many species that can be quite easily kept at home and made to bloom. In addition, for orchids, it is very important to observe the dormant period.
In a special aquarium or on a sunny window. Humid warm air. A prolonged decrease in average daily temperature to + 15-16 degrees can provoke untimely flowering. In a young weak plant, the peduncle is better to cut. Orchids are planted in clay or plastic pots or boxes with holes in the bottom, and preferably in the walls.
It is desirable to water the plants with boiled or distilled water, and spray them with distilled or pure rain (snow), as salts precipitate from hard water on the leaves, forming a whitish coating over time. Orchids can be fed simultaneously with watering.
Orchids grow well under fluorescent lamps, which should be located at a distance of about 30 cm from the plants and shine for 11-12 hours. Optimum illumination is determined empirically. If the leaves are strongly raised up or down, and the internodes are shortened, then there is too much light. Long and thin internodes, smaller than expected, leaves indicate its lack. The aquarium with orchids can be kept on a sun-lit, but warm window.
Orchids require very high humidity, while in rooms with central heating in the winter or hot summers, even 2-3-fold spraying will not help. Although periodically orchids need to be sprayed for hygienic reasons. Orchids are not sprayed if they are in the sun, and during flowering they are sprayed so that water does not fall on the flowers. It is best to spray the orchids in the morning or in the afternoon, at night you can spray them if the orchid pots are not on the balcony or porch, i.e. if no night temperature drop is expected.
High humidity is probably the main and very important condition for keeping orchids. Humidity is increased by the content of orchids in indoor greenhouses, greenhouses, growing them in an aquarium or near an aquarium or terrarium with water. You can place pots of orchids on a pallet with pebbles and water. You can use a cat pot instead of a pallet, then pebbles or pebbles will not be needed, since there is a grate there.
© Forest & Kim Starr
"7 deadly sins" in the cultivation of orchids:
- Too plentiful top dressing. During dormancy, plants are not fed. Fertilizer doses must not be exceeded.
- Close heat source. Do not place the plant near a heating battery.
- Wet leaves. Watering and spraying is better in the morning.
- Excessive watering. Watering in accordance with the recommendations.
- Cold drafts. Do not confuse ventilation and draft.
- Dry air. Need increased humidity and airing.
- Bright sun. Do not keep plants in direct midday sun, shade.
1. Division of the bush. When propagated by division, you can separate the bush into parts with roots. Moreover, on each part, it is desirable to leave three sprouts, so that the plants are viable. Place slices sprinkled with crushed coal.
2. Stem cuttings. For propagation by cuttings, old, elongated stems, side shoots or faded flower stems are taken. Cuttings take about 10-15 cm long. The cuttings are not stuck into the ground like other indoor plants, but laid flat on the surface of the soil (sand or moss) and placed in a greenhouse, preferably with heating. Orchids can be propagated not by cutting the cuttings, but by laying the stem in an adjacent pot, cut it off from the mother plant after rooting.
3. Rooting the apex. The stems of monopodial orchids (Wanda) grow in height. The lower leaves die off and the stalk is exposed. In an elongated plant, the stem is cut off during the period of active growth (preferably with aerial roots) and planted in a pot, tied to a support. The lower part of the plant forms processes over time.
4. Rooting pseudobulbs. You can separate the old bulb from faded orchids (for example, epidendrum). Old bulbs that have lost leaves are separated and planted in a separate pot. At the same time, moist air is maintained, and the temperature should not be lower than 20 ° C. After some time, new plants appear on the roots from the buds at the base of the old bulb. After a while, they are separated and planted in pots.
5. Cuttings. Only a few orchids reproduce this way, for example, dendrobium and epidendrum. In spring or summer, the stem of an adult plant is cut at the base and cut into pieces about 5 cm so that there are 2 internodes per segment. Slices are dusted with sulfur. Cuttings are planted in sphagnum with sand and placed in a greenhouse. After 3-4 months, the cuttings give leaves and they are transplanted into separate pots.
6. Seeds. When propagated by seeds, they take soil from chopped moss (you can add a little leafy soil), which is well moistened. Seeds are covered in rows and not covered with soil. Sowing is kept at a temperature of about 22 - 25 ° C, with high humidity. Instead of watering seeds, it is better to carefully spray with soft water. After the first leaf appears at the seedlings, they are dived into the soil, consisting of chopped moss and peat in equal parts. The second pick is carried out after the appearance of the second leaf, while chopped roots of ferns are already added to the soil, in addition to moss and peat. With the formation of four leaves, seedlings dive from the bowl into permanent pots.
Growing seedlings is a very time-consuming procedure, even for experienced orchid lovers. (they will bloom only for 4-6 years.)
It is necessary to germinate the seeds under sterile conditions and on a special substrate, but you can try it if pollination has occurred on the plant and the fruit has started. Remove the fruit when the top begins to dry. When it cracks, sprinkle part of the seeds on a substrate under the mother plant. After six months or a year, seedlings are transplanted into small pots in a substrate of bark and perlite.
© Forest & Kim Starr
1. Ada orange-red (Ada aurantiaca).
This plant is native to the Central Andes of Colombia. A medium-sized orchid with almost conical pseudobulbs, one linear leaf at the apex and several greenish articulated leaves at the base of the pseudobulb. Not extremely long arcuate curved peduncles arise at the base of pseudobulbs and carry 7-12 or more fiery red plants. It blooms in January-May; due to the appearance of not the first, but the descent of several inflorescences, flowering lasts 2-3 weeks.
The main condition for a successful culture of orange-red ada is low night temperatures (about 6 ° C) in combination with a constant influx of fresh air. It must also be remembered that during the growth period, drying of the plant should not be allowed.
2. Ansellia (Ansellia).
Tuberidia are vertical, spindle-shaped, cylindrical, up to 40 cm long, with 6-7 leaves. The leaves are elongated-lanceolate, leathery, with a shiny surface and 5 prominent veins, pointed, folded. The length of the sheet is 11-13 cm, the width is 1.5-2 cm.
The inflorescence is apical, multi-flowered, branching, in the form of a spreading panicle, up to 15-17 cm long. Flowers with a diameter of 4-5 cm. Sepals are elongated, petals shorter, but wider than sepals. The lip is three-lobed. The lateral lobes are elongated; the middle one is oval. The flowers are greenish-yellow, with longitudinal dark crimson stripes on the lateral lobes of the lips and red-brown spots on the sepals and petals. The column is yellow, arcuate, thin, up to 1 cm long.
It blooms in September - November. The duration of flowering is 1.5-2 months.
Homeland - tropical and South Africa. It is found along the banks of rivers.
Lighting: bright diffused light.
In the process of active growth, they need shading.
Watering: only with soft, warm water. In winter - moderate. In the summer - plentiful. Abundant watering is carried out from May to September.
Humidity: tropical greenhouse, frequent spraying. Humidity is 75-80%.
Transfer: as necessary in the spring. Earth mix: chopped rhizomes of fern, peat, fallen leaves, pieces of pine bark and coal (3: 3: 2: 1: 1).
Top dressing: spring-summer - 1 time in 2 weeks with mineral and organic fertilizers
winter-autumn - without top dressing.
In the summer, once a month they are fed a 0.01% solution of a complete mineral fertilizer.
Clipping: does not need.
3. Ascocentrum (Ascocentrum).
Ascocentrums look a bit like orchids belonging to the popular genus Wanda, although ascocentrums are smaller than the latter in size. It is no coincidence that the ascocentrum is often called the "miniature epiphytic orchid."
When kept indoors, the lifetime of ascocentrums is only a few years. Ascocentrums quite easily form hybrids with orchids of other genera.
As a substrate, just a mixture of pieces of old bark (you can use pine) and rotted peat is suitable. It is useful to add sphagnum moss.
flowering begins in spring or early summer. During flowering, a lush leaf-shaped inflorescence rises above the leaves, bearing many small flowers. Sometimes there are several inflorescences. The diameter of the flowers varies from 1.5 to 2.5 cm. The main tones in the color of the flowers are yellow, orange and reddish.
lighting can be quite bright with good ventilation. Room temperature, preferably not lower than 15-16 ° C. Ascocentrum does not respond well to sudden changes in temperature and drafts. If a sufficiently intense stream of sunlight falls on the leaves of the ascocentrum, they acquire a dark green color.
watering is carried out depending on how quickly the substrate loses moisture. In summer, usually every 3-4 days, in winter not more than 1 time per week. If the temperature in winter in the room is the same as in summer, and besides, lighting is organized, the intensity of watering should not be reduced. Adding sphagnum moss to the substrate, which absorbs water well, reduces the frequency of watering to 1 time per week, even in summer.
Feeding is recommended from April to September. The concentration of fertilizers for flowers is reduced by at least half compared with the recommended rate in the instructions.
4. Hedgehog Baptistonia (Baptistonia echinata).
Baptistonia urchin native to Brazil. This epiphytic orchid grows on trees at an altitude of 50-1200 m above sea level.
Peduncles grow from the base of the pseudobulb.
It blooms mainly in spring, although it can bloom at any time of the year.
The plant is thermophilic, the minimum temperature at night should not be lower than 17-20 ° C.
This species prefers high humidity of 75–90%. Such humidity is easier to maintain with a humidifier.
Hedgehog baptistonia prefers bright sunlight, however, it requires shading in the summer afternoon hours.
The plant is hygrophilous, but does not tolerate stagnation of water near horses. Watering is best done with warm water. The substrate between waterings should dry slightly.
Pots are perfect as containers, or you can grow an orchid on a block.
The substrate should consist of a pine bark of a large fraction and sphagnum moss.
Fertilize the orchid every second watering.
The resting period of the orchid is not expressed.
Hedgehog baptistonia is propagated by dividing the bush, with each part containing at least three pseudobulbs.
© Dalton Holland Baptista
5. Blecia (Bletia).
The genus Blecia has about 50 species that grow in Central and South America, in tropical and subtropical forests from Florida to Argentina, the largest number of species is in Brazil.
Plants are erect, have a sympodial type of growth.
Pseudobulbs are almost spherical in shape, have fleshy roots.
The leaves are longitudinally folded, extend from the base of the pseudobulb, grow 3-5 pieces each.
The inflorescence grows on the side, a long paniculate or racemose, carries from 3 to 80 flowers.
Flowers are medium sized. Color from white and greenish to pink-fuchsin.
Bleach forms a fetus in the form of a cylindrical capsule.
Prefers moderate temperature conditions from 18 to 22 ° C.
It is better to grow in light partial shade.
Watering during the period of active growth should be plentiful. After falling leaves, watering should be reduced.
The best substrate is a mixture of pine bark, peat and rotted leaves.
Top dressing is carried out during the period of active growth 2 times a month.
© Dalton Holland Baptista
6. Vanda (Vanda).
Large, spherical flowers of the Wanda genus attract us with their unusual bright color. The most famous orchid of this genus is Wanda blue with flowers of blue exotic color. The rich palette of the Wand genus includes, in addition to blue and blue tones, also yellow, red, orange colors, up to variegated. A monopodial structure is characteristic of these plants.If you want to grow orchids on the windowsill, we recommend that you cross Wanda with the genus Ascocentrum, which are taller, but not inferior to Wanda orchids in the beauty and splendor of flowering. As for the new varieties, the development of selection is now aimed at obtaining miniature forms.
Orchids of the Wanda genus are usually sold in baskets with no substrate at all. It is best to grow them in a window for breeding flowers or in a winter garden with high humidity. In order for these flowers to start blooming, they definitely need a lot of light. Pure species of this genus need additional lighting in winter.
Orchids of the Wanda genus, which were grown in our regions, usually bloom more often and more magnificent than those brought from abroad. Therefore, when buying, find out where the selected flowers grew.
© Tóth Árpád
7. Doritis (Doritis).
A small genus of monopodial orchids from tropical regions of Southeast Asia, which, according to different authors, includes from one to three species. Often in nature, doritis grow as land or lithophytic plants, settling in sandy soil or on stones in seasonal semi-deciduous forests or on sun-scorched plains. Doritis differs from phalaenopsis in a thin erect peduncle, as well as vertically standing lateral lip lobes.
The most beautiful Doritis (Doritis pulcherrima).
Monopodial orchid, can grow as an epiphytic, lithophytic or terrestrial plant. The flowers appear on a hard erect peduncle, reaching 20-60 cm in length and bearing up to 25 flowers of a wide variety of colors - from light lavender to bright pink and dark amethyst. The flowers reach a diameter of 3.5-5.0 cm. Blooms from June to November, individual flowering specimens can be found in winter and spring.
© Javier martin
8. Cattleya (Cattleya).
The homeland of these epiphytic and lithophytic orchids is the tropical forests of North, Central and South America, as well as the tropical jungle of Brazil.
The genus Cattleya has 53 species. About 20 species and hundreds of hybrids are common in the culture.
The type of growth is sympodial.
There are two morphological types of cattleya.
Representatives of the first group have elongated, fleshy, spindle-shaped, sometimes flattened bulbs, bearing one leathery apical leaf.
The peduncle emerges from the apical part of the pseudobulb and bears several fragrant flowers.
The color is dominated by pink-purple and white. Yellow spots are often found on the lip.
The second group includes plants with long, cylindrical pseudobulbs that carry two (sometimes more) leathery leaves of elliptical shape.
The peduncle grows from the top of the pseudobulb and bears several medium-sized flowers.
The flowers have a diverse color and, compared with the first group, a denser texture.
The inflorescence is a small-flowered brush located on a relatively short peduncle. Contains from 3 to 5 large and fragrant flowers up to 15 cm long. All species bloom from two to four weeks. And in a cut form they retain freshness for up to three weeks.
The flowers are large, brightly colored, fragrant, with a prominent lip with a corrugated edge.
Flowering mainly in April-September.
The root system is represented by creeping elevated rhizomes.
Most cattleya have a pronounced rest period from October to March. At this time, the optimum temperature during the day is 16–18 ° C, and the night temperature is 10–12 ° C.
Part of univalent cattleya has two periods of rest.
Some species originating from areas with insignificant seasonal differences have no pronounced dormant period.
9. Oncidium (Oncidium).
Oncidium is one of the most numerous and popular genera of orchids.
Today, this genus includes more than 700 species of epiphytic plants. Its representatives grow up to 3000 meters above sea level in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America. A small number of species live in Florida. They can be found in various climatic conditions - from mountain "cloudy" or "foggy" forests to savannah-type plant communities with sharp seasonal and daily fluctuations in temperature, humidity and rainfall. Location: oncidiums are photophilous, and plants with thick fleshy leaves. It is best to place the flower closer to the south or west window. At the southern window in the summer, at noon, you will need a shade from direct sunlight. At the northern window, a lack of light does not affect growth, but interferes with flowering. In summer, oncidiums can be taken out into the open air, not too strong sunlight will not harm them.
All species of this genus grow well, bloom and develop when kept under a fluorescent lamp.
Temperature: in relation to the temperature regime, all indoor oncidiums can be divided into three groups.
The first group includes heat-loving oncidiums - these are plants of the rainforest (rainforest oncidium, Mants oncidium, etc.). The optimum for them is summer daytime temperature of 25-30 ° C and winter nighttime temperature of 15-18 ° C. For many of these plants, the daily temperature amplitude should be 3-5 ° C.
The second group includes orchids that require moderate temperatures - these are plants of foothill forests (tiger oncidium, beautiful oncidium, etc.). Plants need cooler conditions with a summer daytime temperature of 18-22 ° C and a minimum winter nighttime temperature of about 12-15 ° C.
The third group consists of cold-loving species - plants of mountain forests (sinuous oncidium, warty oncidium, etc.). For them, the optimal summer temperature should not rise above 22 ° C, and the winter night temperature should be 7-10 ° C. These conditions are close to mountain forest conditions.
Watering: during the growth period, the orchid is watered on average every 3-5 days; between waterings, they allow the top layer of the substrate to dry out a bit, avoiding the accumulation of moisture. During dormancy, soil moisture should be minimal, but do not bring the bulbs to wrinkle. The water is used rainwater or lime neutralizer is added to the tap water.
10. Paphiopedilum (Paphiopedilum).
Currently, the genus Paphiopedilum includes about 100 species of terrestrial or semi-epiphytic plants from the Himalayas, China, India, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
The genus got its name from the Greek words paphia - one of the variants of sounding the names of the goddess Venus and pedilon - sandal, slipper, which quite characterizes the external structure of the flower.
The stem of Paphiopedilum is strongly shortened, and the leaves, broad-linear, belt-shaped or oblong, smooth, pointed to the ends, of green color are brought together in a bilateral outlet. At the same time, in some species the leaves are monochromatic, pure green, in others - with a dark marble pattern.
Flowers are usually arranged one at a time.
Paphiopedilum has a long flowering period (flowers remain fresh for up to 2 months). Due to this quality, Paphiopedilums are often used in cutting.
Paphiopedilum blooms mainly in winter.
You can escape from everyday problems and find spiritual goals in life if orchids and cyperuses grow nearby. Orchids inspire and stimulate creativity, help get out of depression. Dark red orchids drive away laziness and apathy.