How to increase plant resistance to stress?
How much plants need to be in time for our very short summer: grow, bloom, set fruits, and in large quantities. And still it is necessary that the fruits have time to ripen and accumulate enough vitamins and other beneficial substances. Then it will be possible to rejoice from the heart of a large and high-quality crop. But this does not always happen. Frost, excess moisture, drought, excessive UV radiation, sudden changes in temperature, hail, strong wind, exposure to pesticides and other adverse factors are stresses for plants, which can lead to serious crop losses. How to increase plant resistance to stress? To do this, you need to use special drugs, and ours are domestic. But first, let's figure out what is stress for plants?
Information for the particularly curious
Stress Is the reaction of the body, in this case the plant, to the action stressor - an adverse environmental factor that deviates from the norm. The stressor may be physical, chemical or biological impact on the plant. There are three phases of stress: 1-primary stress response, 2- adaptation to adverse effects and 3- depletion of reliability systems, which can lead to plant death.
What are the mechanisms of stress in plants? They are different at different levels of the organization. So, at the cellular level observed: an increase in the permeability of cell membranes, a change in the viscosity and pH of the cytoplasm, an increase in the consumption of ATP (a universal source of energy for all biochemical processes in living systems, in particular for the formation of enzymes), as well as the predominance of hydrolytic processes, metabolic disorders, the accumulation of toxins, free radicals, activation and synthesis of stress proteins, synthesis of growth inhibitors, inhibition of stimulants. At the body level: competitive relations between organs, regeneration and growth of axillary buds, a shift from vegetative to generative development, the transition to peace. At the population level: death of unsuitable genotypes, selection and evolutionary changes leading to the development of adaptive mechanisms of the plant organism.
As you know, the yield of any crops is largely determined by their resistance to adverse (stress) factors in a particular region. But what is plant resistance?
Sustainability - this is the ability of plants to self-regulation, optimization of processes occurring in it and their adaptation to stressful environmental conditions. What factors determine the resistance of plants to stress? From the force of exposure to the stressor; from the duration of exposure to the stressor; from the phase of ontogenesis (development) of the plant; from the functioning of reliability and repair systems (ability to restore).
So, resistance to stress is provided by molecular defense mechanisms that form the physiological stability of the plant organism. But, if the strength of the stress factor is great and lasting, then the plant may simply not have enough of its natural margin of safety. And here, drugs with powerful anti-stress and immunomodulatory effects come to his aid. These are natural-based plant growth regulators - Epin-Extra and Zircon, as well as chelated microfertilizers Tsitovit, Ferovit, Siliplant and organic fertilizer EcoFus of the NEST M company. Consider the effects of these drugs on examples of stressful weather conditions.
This is the first serious test for plants at the beginning of the growing season. Depending on the region, the risk of a cold return can be quite long. And if the frosts also coincide with the flowering period of most crops, then you can lose almost the entire crop.
What is the danger of frost? When temperatures go to negative values, the intracellular fluid turns into ice, which makes it impossible for all physiological and biochemical processes to proceed.
How does the plant respond to lower temperatures? In the early stages of stress, starch is hydrolyzed (split), the products of which increase the osmotic potential of the cell and provide cryoprotection (resistance to cold) of cell structures at low temperatures. But, nevertheless, as noted above, the plant must be helped to overcome cold stress.
Epin-Extra anti-stress adaptogen protects plants from frost. The drug provides accelerated production of cold shock proteins in plants, which increase the viscosity of intracellular fluid by increasing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates.
How to use Epin-Extra? It is most effective to spray with Epin-Extra (2 ml / 10 l of water) 1-2 days before the onset of frost, and then repeat them once every 10-12 days during the entire period of risk of a cold return.
A full and balanced diet enriched with microelements contributes to even better adaptation of plants to cold stress. This is explained by the fact that all nutrients (organic, macro- and, especially, microelements) provide plants with the necessary energy and thereby enhance all physiological processes.
What fertilizers do I need to feed the plants during the period of frost? We recommend using organic fertilizer obtained from the White Sea algae - EcoFus. It contains a multicomponent balanced complex of nutrients and biologically active substances in bioavailable form, including more than 40 trace elements, including iodine, selenium, and silicon. In addition, EcoFus itself is able to protect plants from frost. The algae from which it is obtained grows in very harsh conditions. It produces special substances - osmoprotectants, which reduce the rate of transition of intracellular water into ice and thereby protect it from freezing. This property of algae is fully preserved in the EcoFus fertilizer.
Attention! On 10 l of water: 2 ml of Epina-Extra and 50 ml of EcoFus. Spray the plants once every 10-12 days, and they will safely tolerate frosts.
In addition, as a top dressing during the period of frost, you can use Cytovit - a nutrient solution containing all the trace elements needed by plants in the most close to natural - chelate form, which is absorbed by plants without unnecessary energy costs.
Attention! For 10 l of water: 2 ml of Epina-Extra and 30 ml of Cytovit. Spray the plants once every 10-12 days, and they will go through a period of frost without loss.
If treatments to protect plants from frost with Epin-Extra were not carried outSince the plants were damaged, it is necessary to use a bioregulator with a powerful root-forming and growth-stimulating effect of Zircon. It is necessary to water and simultaneously spray this drug (1 ml / 10 l), and then repeat after 7-10 days. Zircon will promote the formation of new suction roots, as well as the active growth of side shoots, and thus preserve plants.
Excessive Humidity Conditions
The situation is not uncommon for many regions. In this case, Epin-Extra will also help. It will contribute to the evaporation of excess moisture from the surface of the leaves, due to the regulation of the stomatal apparatus, and the plants will not suffer from soaking and decay.
How to use Epin-Extra in conditions of excessive humidity? You need to choose a period so that there is no precipitation for 2-3 hours, and spray Epin-Extra (2 ml / 10 l of water), and then repeat 1 time in 10-12 days. In this case, do not forget to regularly loosen the beds to ensure air access to the roots and make water-draining grooves.
With a large amount of precipitation, nutrients, especially trace elements, are quickly washed out of the soil.. To feed plants by watering, in this situation it is impossible. In this case, you need to carry out sheet top dressing (by spraying). Nutrients will penetrate through the leaf cover, and move through plant tissues, reaching every cell. And most importantly, foliar application during periods of excessive moisture makes it possible not to increase the water load on the roots.
What fertilizers can be used for foliar application? Only those that are highly soluble in water and highly bioavailable. Perfect for foliar application Tsitovit. With regular use (1 time in 10-12 days), it completely compensates for the deficiency of trace elements. Trace elements play a huge role in plant life. They regulate all metabolic processes, eliminate functional disorders, are part of enzymes, enhance the synthesis of phytohormones, carbohydrates, vitamins, etc. With their deficiency, various types of chlorosis, spotting and necrosis of leaves, rosette develop, the growth and development of plants slows down, flowering and fruiting deteriorate.
How to use Cytovit in a period of excessive importance? Only by spraying, and best of all in one solution with Epin-Extra. It will contribute to a better assimilation of nutrients and, thus, will further increase the effectiveness of leaf feeding with Cytovit.
Attention! On 10 l of water 30 ml of Citovit and 2 ml of Epina-Extra! Under the influence of these preparations, plants will better tolerate conditions of excess moisture.
Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) with excess moisture is a common phenomenon. Ferovit will help - a universal stimulator of photosynthesis with a high content of bioavailable (in chelated form) iron and nitrogen in the form of urea. The fact is that iron is a catalyst in the redox reactions that accompany the synthesis of chlorophyll (green pigment). With a large amount of precipitation, iron is quickly washed out of the soil, which leads to a decrease in the synthesis of chlorophyll and, as a result, to a slowdown in photosynthesis. The leaves turn yellow, the growth and development of plants is inhibited. Ferovit with regular use once every 7-10 days by spraying (you need to choose a period of 2-3 hours without precipitation) completely compensates for the deficiency of iron. Chlorophyll synthesis will be restored literally after 2-3 treatments, the green color of the leaves will return, photosynthesis will normalize. As in the case of Cytovit, Ferovit is very effective to use in one solution with Epin-Extra.
Attention! In 10 l of water, 30 ml of Ferovit and 2 ml of Epina-Extra. Chlorosis with excess moisture will be stopped.
Especially long periods without rains and high temperatures are stressful for plants and pose a serious threat to future crops. These phenomena, in a changing climate, are becoming more frequent in many regions of the country.
What is the danger of drought? Homeostasis is violated - the constancy of the internal environment of the plant organism, because with a lack of moisture, the turgor of plant tissues decreases, cells lose their ability to absorb nutrients. In addition, the permeability of cell membranes increases, photosynthesis is disrupted, flowers and ovaries fall.
How does the plant respond to lack of moisture and fever? Under the influence of high temperatures, heat shock proteins are synthesized in plants. They protect mRNA (RNA containing information on the primary structure of proteins) from being destroyed by nucleases, the activity of which increases at elevated temperatures. In addition, when exposed to heat and moisture deficiency, stress granules are formed due to the hydrolysis (splitting) of starch, which makes it possible to increase the osmotic potential of the cell during a drought. Biodegradation of macromolecules creates the desired pool of low molecular weight compounds that provide metabolic processes in the recovery period. However, help to plants during drought is still needed, and regular watering is not enough, because at high temperatures, very rapid evaporation of moisture from the surface of the leaves occurs.
Zircon - a plant growth regulator with powerful anti-stress activity, will help protect plants during drought. It helps to reduce the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the leaves and thereby preserves it in plants. In addition, Zircon protects cells from excessive short-wave UV-B radiation, which depletes their energy resources, and increases susceptibility to drought. In addition, Zircon, as an effective root-forming agent, provides accelerated growth and development of the root system. A well-developed root system is the most important condition for plant survival during drought.
How to use Zircon? By watering or spraying 1 time in 7-10 days, in a concentration of 1 ml / 10 l of water, and the plants will survive the dry period safely.
It must be remembered that during a drought, especially a prolonged one, plants are practically unable to absorb nutrients from the soil. Therefore, they need to be fed regularly.
What fertilizers are best used for drought? First of all, EcoFus! This is explained by the fact that in addition to its unique nutritional value, it also has the property of protecting plants from drought. During low tide in the coastal zone, the alga from which it is obtained produces substances with high anti-stress activity, which protect it from drying out. This is the sulfur-containing polysaccharide fucoidan, as well as alginic acids, which are found only in algae, and have the ability to retain water in plant tissues.
Attention! In 10 l of water, 1 ml of Zircon and 50 ml of EcoFus. It is necessary to water or spray plants with this solution once every 7-10 days, and they will feel great.
Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) during drought is quite common, especially in perennial crops (decorative leaf and fruit), sensitive to iron deficiency. In this case, Ferovit will help (see above).
How to use Ferovit in drought? Best by spraying, and in the same solution with Zircon. In just 2-3 treatments, the green color of the leaves will be restored. Moreover, spraying Zircon with Ferovit will contribute to the intensive growth of new leaves, which provides additional resistance of plants to drought. In combination with Zircon, the effect of Ferovit will be even more pronounced.
Attention! In 10 l of water, 1 ml of Zircon and 30 ml of Ferovit, 1 time in 5-7 days. After the plants recover from chlorosis, repeat 1 time in 15 days.
There is another fertilizer that plants need during drought — Siliplant! It contains bioactive (soluble) silicon and trace elements in chelated form. As you know, silicon provides a special strength of plant tissues. So this strength plays a huge role in increasing the drought tolerance of plants. Indeed, only strong cell walls are capable of supporting the turgor of plant tissues even in conditions of moisture deficiency. And the use of the Silillant helps to reduce the evaporation of moisture, due to the reduction in the diameter of the stomata, as well as the activation of photosynthesis and increased root formation. In addition, plants treated with Siliplant more economically consume moisture. This is explained by the fact that bioactive silicon enhances the movement of water through the vessels of plants. This leads to a decrease in the rate of moisture evaporation and an improvement in water metabolism, which facilitates the availability of photosynthesis products for cells. Regular top dressing with the Siliplant can reduce the flow of irrigation water by 20-40%.
How to use the Siliplant? By watering or spraying, once every 10-15 days, at a concentration of 30 ml / 10 l of water.
Attention! To provide plants with the maximum possible protection against drought, Zircon with EcoFus should be treated after 7-10 days with Zircon with Ferovit, and after 10-15 days with Siliplant, and repeat them throughout the dry period. Plants will be energetically strong, with abundant bright green foliage, with good turgor.
As mentioned above, stress for plants is also mechanical impact. Thus, it is practically impossible for plants damaged by a strong wind or hail to completely recover during the growing season if no measures are taken to protect them.
How to protect plants from stress caused by strong winds or hail? Use the Siliplant regularly! The thing is that silicon is part of the cell wall and gives it special strength (see above). It is thanks to it that plants become resistant to almost any damaging factors, including to mechanical. In addition, Siliplant, due to the high content of active silicon, still has a lot of interesting properties. The effect of this fertilizer is so multifaceted that it is worth writing a separate article about it.
How to use the Siliplant? By watering or spraying, once every 10-15 days, at a concentration of 30 ml / 10 l of water and the plants will be maximally preserved.
What if the plants are still damaged by hail? It is still difficult to unequivocally answer this question, but several years ago, experts from the Republic of Serbia shared their experience with us. The fact is that in the territory of this country there was a large hail, which greatly damaged crops. Correct the situation of remoteness using Epin-Extra. Several treatments were carried out and most of the crops were restored.
Pesticide Use - Stress for Plants
No one doubts the fact that pesticides (chemical pest and disease control agents) are agents of high danger to humans and serve as the basis for the development of environmental problems. Their use for plants is a real stress, leading to inhibition of growth and development, not to mention burns in case of overdose of drugs. In addition, residual amounts of pesticides may be present in the fruit, posing a threat to the health of the person who consumed them. Many gardeners try to use "chemistry" in their plots as little as possible. And it is right. However, in advanced cases, with a strong infection of plants with diseases and a large population of pests, one has to resort to the use of pesticides.
Tank mixtures of pesticides with Epin-Extra or Zircon will help reduce their negative effect on plants. As a result of numerous tests, it was found that the use of both Epina-Extra and Zircon in tank mixtures with pesticides (with the exception of those that have an alkaline environment) can reduce the rate of use of the latter by at least 30%, without losing their effectiveness, or reduce number of treatments. The fact is that both Epin-Extra and Zircon improve the penetration of pesticides into plant cells, which makes it possible to reduce their consumption rates. As for the toxic effect of pesticides and their accumulation in fruits, then in this case Epin-Extra, D.V. which contributes to the activation of 2.5 - 3.0 times the enzymes detoxification of harmful substances, and their speedy removal from the plant body.
Why, with a low infectious background and a small population of pests, can pesticides be dispensed with? Both Epin-Extra and Zircon with regular and competent use create stable non-specific immunity in plants to phytopathogens (bacterial, fungal and viral). And Zircon, in some cases, also acts directly on the pathogens themselves. In addition, both Epin-Extra and Zircon, due to increased photosynthesis, contribute to the intensive growth of new leaves. And this provides additional resistance of plants to pests.
So, in order to increase plant resistance to stress, it is necessary to regularly and competently (as recommended in the article, see above), from the very beginning of the growing season and until the end of gardening work, apply Epin-Extra, Zircon, EcoFus, Tsitovit, Ferovit and Siliplant. And strong and stress-resistant plants will thank you with a large and high-quality fruit harvest!
You can purchase NEST M products, as well as get advice
- to the address: 127550 Moscow, st. Pryanishnikova d. 31A, VNIIIA, of. 110
- in our online store: www.nest-m.biz
- by phone: (499) 976 - 2706, (499) 976 - 4736, 8 (800) 707-88-65
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