Flower Clock: Myths and Reality
In 1755, the most famous botanist Kral Linnaeus published his famous treatise “Somnus plantarum” (“The Dream of Plants”), in which he presented his results of many years of observation of how and why flowers are revealed. He explained the rhythm of the movement of the petals during the day by the uneven growth of the outer and inner sides of the petals. Timely closing of the petals prevents pollen from getting wet when dew appears, and after it dries, the petals open, giving insects access to the pollen. Typically, such an opening occurs the next day, but in some plants, and much later.
These observations prompted the king of botanists (as his students and colleagues called Karl Linnaeus) to create a flower clock: a circle divided into several sectors with plants that bloom and close at certain times of the day. Such floral clocks were created by him in his famous botanical garden in Uppsala. Having heard about this, I visited this garden and museum before the advent of the Internet era, in the hope of seeing this miracle with my own eyes, but I was disappointed, so far the famous flower clocks have not been preserved.
How were the famous floral watches of Carl Linnaeus arranged?
Let's try to figure it out. After its creation, he described their device in his other famous work “The Philosophy of Botany” in 1751. The lists of plants of Linnaean flower clocks published often on the Internet, which are often published on the Internet, are not entirely correct; they only reflect the recommendations of another well-known botanist Kerner for Uppsala Garden at the very end 19th Century in The Natural History of Plants. Kerner increased the number of recommended species by about 6 times. So now various combinations of these 60 species (in which there are even cacti!) Are walking on the Internet. But Kerner gave only general recommendations for a possible addition to the flower clock! The original plan of Linnaeus and, most importantly, its practical implementation were different.
Karl Linney's floral clock included the following:
|Morning||Meadow goat-breeder||3-5 hours||—|
|Common chicory, Hawk bitter beetle, Rosehip||4—5||—|
|Daylily brown-yellow, poppy single-stem, garden sow||5||—|
|Three-part series, Dandelion officinalis||5—6||—|
|Umbrella hawk, panicle panicle||6||—|
|Hairy hawk, Sow thistle||6—7||—|
|Crown, branched, Sowing lettuce, Kulbaba bristly, White water lily||7||—|
|Full-time field color (Anagalis field), Scion clove, Hawk Ushkovaya, Bindweed||8||—|
|Calendula field, Carnation field||9||—|
|Common chicory, Sowing lettuce, Field sow thistle||—||10|
|Day||Carnation is field, Carnation is field||—||13|
|Corolla branched, hairy Hawk||—||15—16|
|Umbrella hawk, White water lily, Forget-me-not||—||17|
|Evening||Geranium is sad||18||—|
|Daylily brown-yellow, Rosehip||—||19—20|
We give opening and closing times for Uppsala, along with this city for Innsbruck, Linnaeus recommended several other watches. The average shift for opening is 1-2 hours later, for closing 2-3. Some numbers are embarrassing, for example, a dandelion, it closes too early (for the sake of justice, for Innsbruck it is already 16-17). But this was only the beginning, the very first flowers.
Later, floral clocks were created in a number of botanical gardens and parks. The most famous - of course in Switzerland, they are in Moscow, on Poklonnaya Hill. In the capital of the United Arab Emirates, the largest flower clocks (a gift from the twin city of Geneva) were recently opened. They are a copy of the Swiss according to local conditions.
How to make a floral watch with your own hands?
I must say that creating real flower flowers is a troublesome business. It is not for nothing that more often a floral clock means an ordinary mechanical clock with hands, simply lined with flowers. But you can make real flower watches yourself, especially since their creation is a fascinating process that gives the joy of observing and communicating with nature not only to adults, but also to your children, if you do them together.
So, first of all, we must remember that the recommended plants and opening times in books and on the Internet are only general and strongly depend not only on latitude and longitude, but also on the local microclimatic conditions of your site. And more often than not, everything is piled up in a heap, how to combine and plant together, for example, a white water lily and a dog rose?
Therefore, it is best to experimentally determine the composition and time parameters. To do this, select a small round platform for the dial (best of tiles, but the outlined circle on the lawn will do). In the center, fasten a long thin stick, it will cast a shadow. On the perimeter, indicate the time where the shadow falls, it is better from 6 am to 8 pm, because the sundial will not work at night, put the candidates here in pots. Observing the real time of opening and closing flowers for a couple of weeks, moving the pots, you can choose the time periods that correspond to your particular site. Remember only that cloudy and rainy weather make adjustments.
In conclusion, we present a list of candidates for floral watches of widespread species from modern botanists for central Russia and the European CIS countries.
Disclosure: meadow goat-breeder (3-5 hours), dogrose, roofing scherd, poppy, chicory, mustard (4-5), meadow and garden sow thistle, red day, dandelion (5-6), hawks, field sow thistle, beetroot, potatoes, flax ( 6-7), garden lactuk, cuckoo tears (7), full-time field color, three-colored violet (7-8), bindweed (8), field cloves, tar, marigolds (9), torichen, mother and stepmother, chicory - for the second time (17-18), fragrant tobacco (19-20), night violet, two-leafed love (21-22).
Closure: garden lettuce, meadow and garden sow thistle (11-12), umbelliferous field carnation hawthorn (13-14), poppy, chicory, potatoes (14-15), hairy hawk, three-colored violet, tar, toric (15-16), flax (16-17) marigolds, forget-me-nots (17-18), rose hips (19-20), sour (21).