What is organomineral fertilizer - the specialist answers
The modern market amazes with the variety of forms, names and filling of colorful packaging and containers with fertilizers. We are offered such a huge number of different drugs that, sometimes, even an experienced summer resident can get confused about the choice of one or another fertilizer for their plants. What can we say about newcomers! In this article, we invite the reader to get acquainted with WMD - a long-acting complex granular organic-mineral fertilizer that compares favorably with other modern complex fertilizers. Why is WMD the best food you can offer your plants, and how does it work? This and other questions are answered by the head of the agricultural chemical service of the Buysky fertilizer plant - D. Belozerov
Why is the content of nutrient elements in WMD lower than in the azofosk, for example, and the fertilizer efficiency higher?
Answer: The assimilation of nutrients from the soil by the root system of a plant proceeds differently. Of the mineral fertilizers introduced for digging, nitrogen is absorbed somewhere by 50-60%, phosphorus by 10-20%, and potassium by 30-40%. The rest of the fertilizer applied, evaporates into the atmosphere (nitrogen), forms insoluble compounds, or with irrigation, rainwater goes into deeper layers of the soil (phosphorus, potassium). Thus, of the NPK introduced into the soil 15-15-15 plants remains NPK 7.5-3-5.
Due to the organic granule of WMD, consisting of lowland processed peat, nutrients do not interact directly with the soil environment - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are stored inside the granule for a long period and remain accessible to the root system of plants. NPKs from WMD are absorbed by 80-90%. That is, from NPK 7-7-8 introduced into the soil, 6.3-6.3-7.2 enters the plants.
Ordinary mineral fertilizers also contain only nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and in the WMD there is additionally magnesium, sulfur, a set of trace elements, humic substances and a microbacterial additive, which in aggregate gives the greatest result both in yield and, most importantly, as grown products.
It is also worth noting that in the pursuit of productivity, some gardeners decide to fertilize more than prescribed in the recommendations. The increased content of mineral salts in the basal zone leads to an increase in soil salinity and a chemical burn of the roots. You can’t get more crop, but lose possible - yes.
WMD does not burn the root system of a plant, even if it is put under the root more than necessary, because of the organic base - peat granules. The organic granule is “native” to the surrounding soil environment; therefore, the root system does not experience stress from the close presence of WMD, but instead it braids the granule with roots and draws nutrients from it to the extent that the plant needs.
Why are bacteria in WMD and why are they not in conventional mineral fertilizers?
Answer: Bacteria have lived, live and will live in our environment in huge numbers and diversity. For example, about 150 types of bacteria and 20 types of mushrooms coexist on the human body at the same time, despite all kinds of hygiene, shampoos and more.
In the soil environment, thousands of species (strains) of bacteria that live independently of human activity are involved in the decomposition of organic residues (of plant and animal origin) in the soil and on its surface. For thousands and millions of years of their activity, they have given us that fertile layer in which we are engaged in agriculture. Depending on weather and climatic conditions, somewhere these are chernozems reaching one and a half and more meters, and somewhere in permafrost the fertile layer is 10-15 cm.
The soil is considered fertile and "working", that is, ready for the reproduction of nutrients, leaving it with our crop, if it is rich in active microbiology. With the help of fertilizers, we artificially increase its fertility. Excessive application of mineral fertilizers reduces the number of bacteria in the soil, or completely destroys the microbiota. Then the soil becomes lifeless and its natural reserves of mineral substances quickly end. Fertility is running out.
Man conditionally divided the bacteria into useful and pathogenic, although the basic law of nature also applies to bacteria - to survive and leave offspring. And what they do at the same time can help us gain or lose our crops. Therefore, scientists isolate or create strains of bacteria that are beneficial for plants and humans. On their basis, special microbiological preparations are made that improve the structure of the soil, more efficiently decompose organic fertilizers, composts, leaves and everything that we dig into the ground in the soil.
During the production of WMD, a microbiological preparation is applied to its granule based on the two most common bacteria, Bacillus Subtilis and Bacillus Mucilaginosus. These are rhizospheric bacteria, that is, bacteria that live in the zone of plant roots. These are symbiotic bacteria — they feed on the plant’s root secretions (proteins, amino acids, sugars, etc.), and decompose with their enzymes (secretions) organic matter and minerals in the soil, which contain the elements we need — phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements.
Bacillus Subtilis are bacteria that fill the root space and do not let other bacteria that are conditionally pathogenic into it. So, they perform the function of a protector of plant roots, and prevent the possibility of their diseases, the appearance of root rot. Bacillus subtilis exhibit a versatile effect on pathogens - they produce antibiotics, are antagonists to phytopathogens, and increase plant immunity.
Bacillus Mucilaginosus is a bacterium that processes soil minerals to a greater extent by isolating its enzymes and makes available soil phosphorus and potassium. Particular problems with the availability of these elements arise on alkaline (carbonate-rich) soils, where the effect of phosphorus fertilizers is little and the phosphorus is not absorbed by plants, but accumulates from year to year to norms that exceed several times the permissible values.
Thus, the microbiological additive applied to the WMD granule improves the soil structure in the root zone, prophylactically protects the roots from pathogenic forms of bacteria and additionally provides our plant with nutrients located in the soil, but inaccessible for assimilation.
How long do bacteria live on WMD?
Answer: Bacteria survive in very harsh conditions and there are examples of their detection in space on asteroids and on the outer skin of spacecraft.
Of course, they can die. If you create conditions unsuitable for the life of bacteria, some of them can go into a spore form and, when favorable conditions occur, go into a vegetative form and again develop, multiply.
When it comes to soil bacteria, adverse conditions are created by nature (frost or drought) or due to the introduction of large quantities of mineral fertilizers. With high salinity of the soil, beneficial bacteria die, even turning into a spore form. Due to the osmotic effects, spore dehydration occurs, which leads to the death of the bacteria.
To develop bacteria, you need oxygen, water and nutrition. Being on a WMD granule for the life of bacteria is not enough moisture and nutrition. They are in the form of spores and can exist in this state for a very long time. And since the fertilizer granule is organic (peat), the osmotic effects do not occur and the spores remain in hibernation and do not die. On granules of mineral fertilizers spores die.
When WMD is introduced into the soil, spores receive a sufficient amount of moisture, oxygen and pass into a vegetative form - they begin their life activity.
In the soil, bacteria become spore-forming at temperatures close to 0 ° C. When the temperature rises, they wake up.
Where do humic substances come from in WMD and why are they needed?
Answer: At the final stage of fertilizer production, potassium humate of our own production is applied to the granule by spraying. Also, for the production of WMD, low-level peat of high decomposition is used, which is extracted from the ancient marshes of the Kostroma region. Such peat is rich in useful elements, minerals, but primarily humic substances.
Humic substances that make up peat are beneficial for plants. They play the role of natural stimulants of growth processes, but not all are available for assimilation. So humic acid does not dissolve in water, but when it interacts with potassium or sodium alkali, we can get a salt of humic acid (humate), which is already well soluble, and therefore available for plants
Humate of potassium or sodium is an organomineral fertilizer that has a protective and biostimulating effect on a plant; therefore, it promotes the cultivation of environmentally friendly products, a decrease in its content of biotoxins, radionuclides and heavy metals, an increase in the content of vitamins, proteins and carbohydrates in plant fruits, and an improvement in marketable type of cultivated products.
WMD - fertilizers of prolonged, gradual action. They begin to "work" when the root system is already beginning to develop and braids granules to pull the mineral components from the fertilizer. But up to this point, humic substances deposited on the surface of the fertilizer granules are engaged in the stimulation of root development.
WMD, getting into the soil when planting different crops, first of all, releases humate into the environment, stimulating the germination of seeds and the development of root hairs. And when the root system is sufficiently developed, it absorbs nutrition from WMD and the surrounding soil.