Agricultural technology of peonies. Part 3: Care
- Agricultural technology of peonies Part 1: Choosing and preparing a place to plant
- Agricultural technology of peonies. Part 2: Landing
- Agricultural technology of peonies. Part 3: Care
With proper soil preparation in planting pits or ridges-trenches, young bushes normally develop in the first two years without root dressing with mineral fertilizers. They need only frequent weeding, loosening and watering. Carefully loosen the soil around the bushes: near the bush to a depth of 5–7 cm, at a distance of 20–25 cm from it –– 10–15 cm. With regular loosening, a well-aerated mulch layer forms on almost all soils, preventing moisture from evaporating from the lower layers of the soil . It eliminates the need for frequent watering in dry weather. In addition, frequent loosening facilitates weed control. It is advisable to loosen the soil after rains and heavy irrigation to prevent the formation of crust.
In the first year after planting, the aerial part of the plant is small and consists of one or two stems 15–25 cm high. During this period, the root system intensively develops, but still weakly assimilates nutrients (nitrogen - N, phosphorus - P, potassium - K) at root dressing with mineral fertilizers. At this stage of plant formation, foliar feeding is more effective, in which nutrients are absorbed through the leaves. Experience shows that it is rational to carry out three foliar top dressings of the following composition with an interval of 10-15 days:
- the first top dressing is 40-50 g of urea (urea) per 10 l of water immediately after the start of the growth of the aerial parts of plants;
- the second feeding — 40-50 g of urea with the addition of a tablet of trace elements per 10 l of water;
- third feeding — 2 microelement tablets per 10 liters of water.
Foliar top dressing is performed using a garden sprayer. It is better to spray in the evening. To better wet the surface of the leaves in 10 l of solution, add one tablespoon of washing powder. During the second and third feeding, it is useful to water the young plantings with a solution of sodium humate to enhance the development of the root system. (5 g per 10 l of water) or heteroauxin (2 tablets per 10 l of water). If buds form on the bushes in the first two years after planting, they are removed so that the plants do not spend a large amount of nutrients on the flowers, but continue to develop the root system.
By the third year after planting, the bushes grow, have 10-15 stems, begin to bloom profusely. At this time, regular root dressing with mineral fertilizers is required. In the spring-summer period they are carried out at least three. In all cases, overfeeding the bushes with nutrients is undesirable, therefore it is important to observe the doses of top dressing and the timing of their implementation.
The domestic industry produces more than 30 items of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and complex fertilizers. It is usually recommended to apply the optimal amount of fertilizer per gram of active substance per bush of three to seven years of age. For plants older than seven years, the dose of fertilizing is increased. The active substance is understood as the percentage of basic elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in this fertilizer. On fertilizer packaging sold in stores, this information is always given. The percentage of active ingredient for the most common fertilizers is given in Appendix 1.
The calculation of the required amount of a fertilizer, if recommendations are given in grams of the active substance, can be carried out according to the following formula:
H = 100D / E,
- where H is the required amount of fertilizer, in grams;
- D - the recommended amount of the element during feeding, in grams of the active substance;
- E - the content of this element in the fertilizer (indicated on the package), in percent.
For example, on one bush you need to add 15 g of potassium by the active substance. The farm has potassium sulfate with a potassium content of 45%. Perform the calculation:
H = 100 X 15/45 = 33g.
Thus, 33 g of potassium sulfate should be added to one bush.
For good development of peony bushes and obtaining high quality flowers, early spring nitrogen-potassium top dressing is very important: nitrogen 10-15g, potassium 10-20g by active substance per bush. Fertilize on melt snow or immediately after it leaves, sprinkling around the bush or closing it into a groove. Dissolved fertilizer with meltwater gets to the roots. Spreading fertilizers, try not to get on the rhizome of the bush.
The second top dressing is carried out during the budding period: nitrogen 8-10 g, phosphorus 15-20 g and potassium 10-15 g for the active substance per bush. The main purpose of the second top dressing is to obtain flowers of good quality.
The third top dressing is performed two weeks after flowering. It includes: phosphorus –15–20 g, potassium –– 10–15 g according to the active substance. Fertilizing stimulates the formation of large buds of renewal, the accumulation of nutrients in the roots, thereby providing abundant flowering in the coming year. It is advisable to make fertilizers in the form of a solution — a total of not more than 60–70 g of fertilizers per 10 liters of water. Usually, fertilizing is combined with watering. Dry fertilizer can be applied to the groove before watering. Effective in these terms and additional foliar micronutrient dressing - one or two tablets per 10 liters of water.
Peony bushes have a large mass of leaves, so they evaporate a lot of moisture. Once every eight to ten days they need abundant watering - three or four buckets of water per bush. Watering is especially important in early summer, during the period of active growth and budding, in the second half of summer (July - early August), it is necessary during the formation of kidney renewal. After watering, it is advisable to loosen the soil around the bushes in order to preserve moisture in it.
If the plantings are not thickened, it is better to water into the grooves with a depth of 10-15 cm, arranged at a distance of 20 - 25 cm from the bush. For old, overgrown plants, this distance is increased so that water enters the zone of young active roots. Watering in the grooves can be carried out at any time of the day, but it is better in the evening and at night, when the evaporation is small and most of the water is absorbed into the soil. You can, having prepared a system of grooves between the bushes, leave a hose between the plants at night and open the water so that the water stream is weak and does not erode the roots.
Surface watering from watering cans is carried out much more often, and in hot weather - daily. It is better not to use watering from sprinklers, since as a result of its use, fungal diseases can develop. During flowering, this watering method is generally unacceptable, since the flowers get wet, droop to the ground, spots appear on them, especially noticeable in light varieties.
To obtain large flowers when growing for cutting or exhibition specimens, it is necessary to stepchild side buds when they reach the size of a pea. If you leave the side buds, then the flowering period is significantly extended and the decorativeness of the bushes increases.
When feeding peony bushes at the age of 8-15 years, the amount of mineral fertilizers is increased by about one and a half times in comparison with young bushes. Organic feeding of slurry, which is prepared as follows, gives very good results during this period: fresh mullein is bred in the barrel at the rate of one bucket per 10 buckets of water or bird droppings - one bucket for 20 buckets of water. 400-500 g of superphosphate is added to the mixture and left in a barrel for 10-12 days for fermentation, after which it is used, diluted twice before use (0.5 bucket of slurry per 0.5 bucket of water). Manure is fed once with the slurry once — during budding — into grooves 10-15 cm deep, made around the bush at a distance of 20-25 cm, flow rate - one bucket of the mixture per bush. Liquid feeding on the rhizome is unacceptable.
In the absence of organic fertilizers, it is easy to prepare them from weed weeds, tops, and kitchen waste. Any container is filled up to half with this mass, filled with water and covered with a lid (to prevent the spread of unpleasant odor). For feeding, the resulting liquid is left to stand for five to seven days, diluted with water at the rate of 2 liters of liquid per 10 liters of water, the same flow rate.
For most varieties of interspecific hybrids and peony officinalis, the deadline for effective cultivation in one place does not exceed 10-12 years. Varieties of milky-flowering peonies, according to our observations, even with a competent planting after 15 years, they begin to age, their flowering worsens, the flowers grow smaller, many buds do not bloom at all, the shoots become thinner. This is due to insufficient nutrition of the root system, which by this time goes to a depth of 1 m. Therefore, conventional surface top dressing does not give a result.
Restore the full-color flowering of peonies of this age can be as follows. After the first feeding on melt snow, when nutrients penetrate to a considerable depth together with melt water, four wells 30 to 40 cm deep are made around a bush at a distance of 20 - 25 cm with a garden drill 120 mm in diameter. Top-dressing solutions are poured into them or dry fertilizer is poured . In the second case, abundant but slow watering is required in the wells so that the fertilizers dissolve and reach deep-lying roots. So that the wells are not covered by soil, you can insert small segments of asbestos-cement pipes with holes in them or bundles of dry thin branches from the cutting of bushes.
The second top dressing is carried out during budding at the rate of 25-30 g of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by the active substance. The composition of the third top dressing is similar to the second, conducting it at the beginning of flowering, since it is during this period that plants require significant nutrition. After flowering of pions, 15-20 g of phosphorus and 10-12 g of potassium are poured into each well according to the active substance, then watered. The system of such fertilizing allowed the authors to receive up to 50 full-fledged flowers from the bush at the age of 20 - 25 years.
To cause the beginning of flowering of peonies 12-15 days earlier than usual, the Moscow florist L. N. Sokolov suggests using a film cover. To do this, a plot of 4 X4 m in size, which contains up to 25 bushes of the medicinal peony, is covered with a film in early spring in early April, after clearing the snow. The greenhouse is a gable frame with side walls 90 cm high, along the ridge - up to 150 cm. In one of the end walls. a door is made, in another - a ventilation window.
The film on the roof can be rolled up to the ridge, and on the side walls - wrap up 30 cm upwards for ventilation. The feeding system is ordinary. A set of preventive measures against the development of fungal diseases, which are especially active in conditions of high humidity and high temperature, is very important. In the daytime, the temperature should not exceed 20 - 25 ° C. While the weather is cold, roll up the film for airing during the day. Finally, it is removed when at night, a positive temperature is established. During this period, the peony bushes already grow well, and budding begins.
In many cases, bushes at the age of three years and older during the flowering period require the installation of supports. This is especially necessary for high densely-spread varieties, large and heavy flowers of which are inevitable, even with powerful stems, begin to slope to the ground. The latter is exacerbated during rainfall and in strong winds. As a result, the flowers become polluted and lose their decorativeness, becoming unsuitable for exhibitions and for sale.
It is better to put the supports in advance - seven to ten days before flowering. It is easier to make circles with a diameter of 50–80 cm from a wire with a diameter of 4–5 mm, mounted on three rods 1 m long from the same wire.
Instead of a metal ring, you can take plastic tubes with a diameter of 8-10 mm and thread them into loops at the top of the peg rods. Such supports, painted the color of the leaves, are almost invisible and do not reduce the decorativeness of the site. The support should be at a height of 50–70 cm from the ground.
It is important to choose the diameter of the ring depending on the age and size of the bush so that the stems are freely located inside it. This will avoid the development of fungal diseases on the bush, greatly facilitate the cutting of flowers.
At the end of flowering, the support can be removed, and not cut faded flowers removed with a stalk 10-15 cm long. This will not reduce the amount of green mass of the bush, but will improve the conditions for the development of the root system and the formation of renewal buds.
D. B. Kapinos, V. M. Dubrov - “Peonies in the Garden”