Additional feeding of horticultural crops
At the end of spring and the beginning of summer, the main burden is in the formation and yield of crops by crops. Depending on the physical condition and level of soil fertility, the entire complex of fertilizers can be applied in the fall or divided into autumn and spring fertilizers. For crops with a deep occurrence of the main part of the root system, autumn-spring application of the main fertilizer in the form of a complex or complex fertilizer (nitrophoski, nitroammophos, potassium nitrate, ammophos and other forms) is sufficient. You can independently prepare the necessary mixture of basic fertilizers and add them to the culture.
- The main phases of fertilizing
- How to prepare a solution of organic fertilizers?
- How to fertilize?
- Top dressing on the phases of plant development
The main phases of fertilizing
However, often one main fertilizer application is not enough for the crop to form not only a high crop, but also a crop of full quality. To do this, additional fertilizing of plants is carried out separately with nitrogen, nitrogen-phosphorus, phosphorus-potassium and potash fertilizers with root application and nitrogen fertilizers and microelements with foliar.
Each plant, especially forming a harvest of fruits or berries, needs additional top dressing in a certain period of time or a certain phase. Such phases, usually during the growing season, occur in early ripening crops 2, and in later ones 3-4, not counting the autumn application during the preparation of the soil for next year's crop.
The increased need for nutrients in fruit crops and berry crops is accounted for:
- to the phase of the beginning of the dissolution of the kidneys,
- during budding or the beginning of flowering,
- during the growth of ovaries, the beginning of fruiting.
In your garden diary, enter a list of cultures whose periods coincide, and be sure to feed the combined groups of crops in these phases (the so-called feeding day). There may be several such groups. Depending on the onset of the phase, carry out the appropriate top dressing in the selected group. This will allow you to highlight the days of feeding and reduce the time spent on processing each tree or bush on a single day.
On depleted soils, fruit-bearing crops need to be fed annually, and on fertile soils after 2-3 years. Foliar top dressing in the form of sprinkles with microelements is also necessary when caring for crops. Trace elements increase their resistance to diseases and stimulate the basic biological processes in the growing season.
How to prepare a solution of organic fertilizers?
To prepare the solution:
- slurry: 5-7 parts of water are added to 1 part of manure;
- bird droppings or feces are bred at the rate of 1 part of solid organics in 10-12 parts of water.
Usually, 10 l of solution is applied per 1 sq.m of area.
How to fertilize?
In tree crops, fouling roots that perform a suction function are located on the edge of the crown. To fertilizer got to the roots you need:
- At the edge of the crown of the fruit-bearing culture, dig a groove for half a shovel and fill in a liquid fermented solution of organic fertilizers at the rate of 1 bucket per 2 linear meters, or in a circle add mineral fertilizers of not more than 100-150 g per adult fruit-bearing tree. For young trees, you can make 2-3 circles and make a dose of fertilizer, calculated on the tree. If there is not enough organic fertilizer, then distribute the organic solution by 3-4 m, and dig a few holes inside the circle or drill several holes (no deeper than 15 cm), sprinkle fertilizer in them (divide between all the holes), fill with water, close after absorption the soil. Watering. It is necessary to increase the access of fertilizers to the lower layers (per 15 cm zone) of the location of the roots.
- You can limit yourself to just drilling or digging holes and introducing solid mineral fertilizers, or fill in an organic solution, cover everything with soil and water it. It is clear that the application options are chosen by the owner of the garden plot or cottage.
In shrubs, as a rule, the roots are located in the upper 15-20 cm layer of soil and when digging grooves or drilling wells, they can be injured. To prevent this from happening, carefully remove the top layer of soil around the bush (you can rake it), add organic solution (less concentrated so as not to burn the roots) or sprinkle solid fertilizers, cover with soil (you can mix it with a rake) and water it so that the water goes under the root rather than spreading in a wide puddle around.
Top dressing on the phases of plant development
In the period of bud blooming, which often occurs in April-May, trees and shrubs need nitrogen. We feed the selected groups upon the onset of this phase with nitrogen fertilizers (nitrate or urea) of 75-100 g / tree, organics in the form of humus, a solution of bird droppings or manure. This technique will allow the trees in a shorter time to dissolve the foliage and begin the photosynthetic process.
Budding, the beginning of flowering
Top dressing in this phase is very important, as nutrients are used by the culture not only to form the crop, but also its quality indicators (sugars, vitamins, trace elements, organic compounds).
Top dressing can be root, applied under watering in the form of dry fertilizers or solutions. Liquid top dressing is more effective since dissolved nutrients enter and are absorbed faster by the root system. In this phase, the need for phosphorus and potassium increases in plants.
The best feeding will be nitrophoska, ammophos, potassium nitrate (potassium sulfate) or phosphorus-potassium mixtures. Fertilizer doses range between 200 g / tree, depending on age, crown development and the size of the crop being formed. During this period, it will not hurt to add 2-3 cups of ash under each tree for planting and perform foliar top dressing, the composition of which can consist of trace elements, including calcium, iron, boron, magnesium and the main ones: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (buy ready-made in the store )
You can prepare the solution yourself by mixing boric acid, urea and iodine, respectively, in 10 liters of water 1 dessert spoon without a slide, 2 tablespoons with a slide and 1 incomplete coffee spoon.
Remember! In order not to burn the plants, the concentration of the spray solution should not exceed 1%.
It is advisable to use foliar top dressing under optimal concomitant conditions. Otherwise, it may be ineffective.
Of the early crops in June, the phase of ovary growth and harvesting (raspberries, currants) also falls. In this period, it’s best to feed the berry fruit with 1-2 glasses of ash, which contains a large set of trace elements. Berry spraying is best avoided.
The growth of the ovaries, the formation of the crop and the beginning of fruiting in fruit crops, as a rule, occurs in July. During this period, crops are fed only on depleted soils with external signs of malnutrition. Most often, on fertile soils, the third top dressing is transferred to autumn when preparing the soil for the next year's crop or is carried out after 1-2 years.