Evaluation of the effectiveness of a trichoplant biological product
Assessment of the biological effectiveness (stimulating and biocontrol properties) of a Trichoplant biological product
Currently, biological preparations based on the micromycetes of the genus are widely used in the fight against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Trichoderma [Golovanova, 2008.]. Acting as the natural inhabitants of many natural and artificial substrates, rapidly multiplying in the conditions of culture and nature, being not pathogenic for plants, animals and humans, fungi of the genus Trichoderma constitute a convenient object for the study and development of the means of biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms on the basis of their active strains [Alexandrova, 2003; Colombet, 2007; Rudakov, 1981; Seiketov, 1982; Atef, 2011]. In this regard, an important task is the search for new antagonistically active strains Trichoderma and the creation on their basis of new effective biological products, as well as the expansion of the spectrum of existing ones.
Because in the scientific literature data on the possibility of using micromycetes Trichoderma longibrachiatum as a biocontrol agent promising for the production of biological products, it was not found that the purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocontrol and stimulating properties of the Trichoplant biological product based on Trichoderma longibrachiatum Gf 2/6
Studies of the growth-promoting properties of a biological product were carried out on the basis of the laboratories of the NPO Biotehsoyuz in 2014 under laboratory vegetative experience [Workshop on Agrochemistry, 2001]. As objects of research, seeds and seedlings of cucumbers were used (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties Phoenix 640, winter common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., different. erythrospermum) varieties Zagrava, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Agate varieties.
The study of growth-promoting properties of a biological product. The effect of the drug TRIHOPLANT on seed germination and plant growth processes was carried out during seed germination against the background of the drug with a spore titer of at least 1 × 105 CFU / cm3(1.0% solution of the finished product) and settled tap water (control). For all studied objects, the following indicators were evaluated: germination energy and seed germination according to the recommendations of the relevant articles of GOST 12038-84, friendliness, germination rate [Pospelov, 2013; Ugubnov, 2014] and the power of seed growth during their germination in the sand [Karpin, 2012]. Under the conditions of laboratory vegetative experiment, in seedlings and plants, the height of the aboveground and the length of the underground parts was studied in dynamics on the 7th, 14th and 21st day of cultivation, and the accumulation of dry and raw biomass. For growing in an aquatic culture under laboratory growing conditions, plant seedlings were transferred to material cans with a nominal capacity of 550-560 ml containing 500 cm3 mineral solution Pryanishnikov [Workshop ..., 2001]. Plants were grown with a 16-hour photoperiod, on a phytoluminostat with a vertical two-way way of lighting with LD-30W lamps at a light flux intensity of 130 W / m2.
The study of biocontrol properties of a biological product. The biological effectiveness of the biological product Trichoplant was studied in model experiments using pure cultures of the production strain Trichoderma longibrachiatum GF 2/6 and phytopathogenic micromycetes (Cladosporium cucumerinum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sporotrichioides, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestans, Alternaria sp.) isolated from plants affected by various diseases: spike fusarium, fusarium wilt, alternariosis, rhizoctoniosis, etc. Biological efficacy in relation to phytopathogenic micromycetes was determined by the double culture method on potato-glucose agar (GOST 12044-93) according to the method described in the monograph Rudakova (1981, p. 44, as amended). Biological effectiveness T. longibrachiatum GF 2/6 in relation to phytopathogenic micromycetes, expressed in various types of interactions, was evaluated and characterized according to the terminology described in [Pat. SU No. 1671684] with additions and changes. To establish microparasitic relationships, microscopic preparations of the “crushed drop” type were prepared according to the methods generally accepted in mycology, which were microscopic and photographed using a LOMO MIKMED-6 var 7 microscope with a phase-contrast device.
The growth-promoting properties of the Trichoplant biological product. As shown by studies under the influence of the biological product TRIHOPLANT, germination energy increased by 3.0-12.5%, and seed germination of the studied cultures increased by 7.7-19.0% (Table 1).
As the studies showed, under the influence of the TRIHOPLANT biological product, such indicators as seed germination friendliness increased (by 0.8-1.4%, Table 2), but the average period for which one seed germinated increased (the seed germination rate increased by 0, 6-1.0 days, table 3). The treatment of seeds with the Trichoplant biopreparation had a stimulating effect on the ability of seeds to form strong seedlings: the seed growth force increased by 0.5-2.4 rel. (tab. 5).
According to the results of the studies, the Phoenix 640 variety of cucumbers turned out to be the most responsive to the action of the biological product, in connection with which, further studies were conducted on this crop. Studies of the effect of the drug TRICHOPLANT on the height of the aerial parts of cucumber plants on the 7th, 14th and 21st days showed that, compared with the control variant of the experiment, the height of the aerial parts of cucumber plants of the Phoenix 640 variety on the 7th and 14th days increased by 12.5-39.1% (table. 5).
Studies have shown that, compared with the control, treatment of cucumber plants with the biological product Trichoplant contributed to an increase in the wet weight of the aerial parts by 21.7% and the wet weight of the system by 2.2%. Trichoplant treatment also contributed to an increase in dry plant biomass: in relation to the control, the weight of the aerial part increased by 0.12 g (41.7%), and the mass of the root system, on the contrary, decreased by 0.019 g (or 5.9%) ( table 6).
Biocontrol properties of the strain Trichoderma longibrachiatum Gf 2/6. Studies of the biological effectiveness of the strain Trichoderma longibrachiatum GF 2/6, in suppressing the growth of colonies of phytopathogenic micromycetes - pathogens of tracheomycosis, fusarium, root rot and spotting, as an example Fusarium avenaceum, F. solani and F. sporotrichioides; Alternaria sp., Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Cladosporium cucumerinum showed that T. longibrachiatum starting from the third day of co-cultivation with phytopathogens, it exhibits fungistatic territorial antagonism, limiting the growth of a colony of phytopathogens on the surface of the nutrient medium (Fig. 1).
On the 4th – 5th days of co-cultivation for all studied species, a decrease in the growth zone of the colony of pathogens of mycoses was noted with the onset of antibiotic and alimentary antagonism, which on the 7th day was manifested as an increase in the trichoderma colony on the pathogen colony (Fig. 1, 2) . With further cultivation, colonies of phytopathogens were completely suppressed by Trichoderma colony, and a microscopic examination of such colonies showed a picture of direct parasitism Trichoderma on phytopathogen (Fig. 5).
Conclusion Thus, according to the results of the studies, it was established that germination of wheat, cucumber and tomato seeds against the background of the biological product TRIHOPLANT increases the seed germination energy by 3-12%, seed germination of these crops by 7-19%, and helps to increase the seed growth force by 0, 5-2.4%. Studies have shown that the biological product TRICHOPLANT has a stimulating effect on the growth of cucumber plants. Under the influence of a single treatment, the height of the aboveground part increased on average by 25.8%, the wet weight of the aboveground part increases by 21%, and the accumulation of dry matter by the aboveground part of cucumber plants increased by 41.7%.
Studies of biocontrol properties of the active principle of the biological product TRIHOPLANT - micromycete Trichoderma longibrachiatum strain GF 2/6 against phytopathogenic micromycetes Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sporotrichioides, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria sp. showed that this strain has a certain degree of pronounced biological effectiveness, i.e. in relation to the studied pathogens of plant diseases exhibits biocontrol properties that are expressed in direct parasitism (fungistatic nutritional antagonism) in relation to Ph. infestans, Rh. solani, C. cucumerinum, F. sporotrichioides, F. solani, F. avenaceum, and Alternaria sp; fungistatic antibiotic and territorial antagonism antagonism - limiting and suppressing the development of mycelium of phytopathogens in relation to F. avenaceum, F. sporotrichioides, C. cucumerinum, Ph. solani and Alternaria sp.
Sidyakin A.I., Filonenko V.A. - NGO Biotechsoyuz.
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