Quince - a symbol of fertility
In recent years, quince has become increasingly grown by gardeners. What is the reason? Undoubtedly, the advantage of this tree lies in high productivity, excellent early maturity. Its valuable fruits for making juices, compotes, preserves, jams make quince more and more popular. In this article we will talk about the most common varieties of this tree, as well as about the agricultural technology of quince in the garden.
- Botanical description of the plant
- Quince care
- Growing quince from seeds
- Quince requirements for environmental conditions
- Quince crown shaping and pruning
- Types and varieties of quince
- Diseases and Pests
Botanical description of the plant
Quince (Cydonia) - a monotypic genus of woody plants of the Pink family (Rosaceae) View Common quince, or Oblong quince (Cydonia oblonga) Is the only representative of this genus. Popular names: peppy, poor, hun, even, even tree.
Quince is a small tree or shrub 1.5-3 m high with a spreading crown and a trunk with a diameter of up to 50 cm, dressed in dark gray or blackish-brown, thin, constantly exfoliating bark.
The leaves are alternate, ovoid or oval, large, dark green above, grayish-felt below. Quince flowers - single, large, white or pink, on short lowered pedicels - appear in May-June.
Quince fruits are fragrant, spherical or pear-shaped, lemon or dark yellow, in some varieties with a slight blush. Their flesh is hard due to the presence of numerous stony cells, slightly succulent, tart, sweetish.
The seeds are numerous, brown in color, on top are covered with a skin that is highly mucilized in water. Quince fruits ripen in September and October.
In ancient times, on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, quince was revered as a symbol of love and fertility and was dedicated to the goddess of love Venus. It is found in the wild in the east of Russia.
Quince is bred as a fruit tree, giving beautiful and fragrant fruits, and as a stock for vaccinating pears in the mold culture. The quince is distributed throughout the Caucasus, Crimea, Moldova and Central Asia. Quince is propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering and grafting; the fruits are consumed both raw and in stewed fruit, jelly, jam and baked, as a seasoning for meat.
During the cultivation of quince, its bushes, when forming and pruning, should have branches almost parallel to the surface of the earth; their height is about 50 cm above the root neck. Thickening of the bush should not be allowed, the maximum number of branches on one plant is 10-15, of which 2-3 are from 4 to 5 years old, 3-4 branches are three-year-olds, as many are two-year-olds, the rest are annuals.
Quince annually cut old five-year-old branches with low productivity and damped growth. Strong growth of the vertical shoots of the top type cannot be allowed, they are pinched as they appear or completely cut to the awakening of the kidneys. This is best done in the spring, as autumn pruning reduces the winter hardiness of the bushes. Weakened branches in contact with the soil cut each spring.
Quince harvesting begins from the third decade of September, before the autumn frosts. Large, well-ripened fruits are stored until the beginning of February at a temperature of + 2 ... + 3 ° C.
Quince is usually planted in spring until a green cone appears on the kidneys.
Growing quince from seeds
If there is no planting material, then for growing quince, you can select the largest, well-ripened seeds from the fruits, put them in moist sand in early February (3-4 parts of washed sand for 1 part of seeds) and about 2- in a normal household refrigerator 2.5 months keep in a plastic bag with small holes made by a nail for air to penetrate.
Quince prefers early sowing in loose fertile soil, preferably not acidic (pH not more than 6-7). Good soil will ensure effective germination of seeds, and by autumn, seedlings will reach a height of 40-50 cm.
Quince seedlings obtained in the autumn are transferred to a permanent place and planted no deeper than they grew the first year. Distances between plants 0.5-1 m, between rows 2-3 m. For planting, select areas that are well protected from the wind.
Snow retention gives a great effect: small shields are installed, the spruce branches are laid out, in winter the bulk of the branches, being under the snow, tolerates a sharp cooling. In cold winters, quince branches die from frost if they remain above the snow.
Quince requirements for environmental conditions
Quince is a heat-loving plant, but compared to other southern cultures, it is more winter-hardy. Quince surpasses peach, apricot, cherry plum and most autumn and winter southern varieties of pears in resistance to adverse wintering conditions.
Quince successfully grows and bears fruit at an average annual temperature of at least 8 ° C. Freezing of the kidneys and annual growth is observed only in the most severe winters, with a decrease in temperature to -28 ... -30 ° С. In the south, damage to the kidneys by frost is rare, more often the flowers are damaged by return spring frosts.
Fatal for flowers are temperatures of -2 ... -2.5 ° C in phase - a loose bud. With a duration of frosts of 3-5 days, for the death of flowers, even in the phase of isolation of the bud, a temperature drop of -1 ° C is sufficient.
Quince is photophilous, grows poorly in the shade, branches stretch out, become thin and bare. Such trees bloom and bear fruit weakly, and the fruits lose their specific “quince” aroma, their pubescence becomes dense and persistent.
Due to the shallow root system, the quince needs irrigation, while the trees suffer flooding for 20-30 days. But they are also able to tolerate drought, although both excessive moisture and drought adversely affect the quality of the fruit. Their flesh becomes woody, stiff, and the number of stony cells increases. To successfully maintain an irrigated crop, 4-5 waterings are usually required during the growing season with the required irrigation-watering.
Quince is less exacting to soil conditions, than an apple-tree and a pear. It can grow and bear fruit on a wide variety of soils, including saline ones. Suitable for quince plantations are meadow-chernozem soils, degraded chernozems, light and heavy clay, chestnut loamy sand. On lighter sandy loamy soils, the plants are less productive and short-lived. Quince works best on loose, well-aerated and fairly moist soils.
Quince crown shaping and pruning
Since quince is photophilous, a sparse-tiered formation is recommended for it, providing good illumination of the crown.
On annual quince seedlings, the stem is measured (50-60 cm from the vaccination site) and 7-8 buds are counted above the stem. The first tier is formed of 3-4 branches, which are left through the kidney at a distance of 10-15 cm from one another.
The second tier is created from single branches located through 30-35 cm or two adjacent branches - after 50-60 cm, thus forming the main branches. In order to avoid breaks, the main branches should depart from the trunk at an angle of at least 45 degrees.
A two-year-old tree begins to form from the lower main branch, which is shortened by 50-60 cm from the base. The remaining main branches are trimmed at the same level in height. The conductor is cut above the level of the main branches by 20-25 cm.
The main task of the first years of formation is to choose the branches of the second and third orders necessary to create a solid base of the tree. The first branch of the second order is laid at a distance of 30-40 cm from the tree trunk, the second - at a distance of 30-40 cm from the first on the opposite side. The shoots of the continuation are cut off, subordinating them to the branches of the first order.
During initial fruiting, pruning consists of shortening and thinning. By the end of the period of full fruiting, partial crown rejuvenation is used. For this, the main and fouling branches are cut into 2-3-year-old wood.
Types and varieties of quince
Quince is represented by one species - ordinary quince, which combines several varieties.
Varieties of quince
Angerskaya - French quince grade. The trees are medium-sized, early-growing, fruits are apple-shaped. The skin is smooth, lemon yellow. The pulp is dense, around the heart with granulations. Used for processing and for fresh consumption.
Ilmen - trees are fruitful, moderately resistant. Fruits are above average. The skin is bright yellow. The pulp has a small amount of stony particles, sweet and sour taste. Used for processing and fresh consumption.
Collective - Quince variety is high-yielding, drought-resistant and winter-hardy. The trees are medium-sized. Fruits are large, apple-shaped, bright yellow. The pulp is light yellow, medium dense, with a low content of stony cells. Fruits are stored for 2-3 months.
Krasnoslobodskaya - quince grade of medium winter hardiness, good productivity. The trees are stunted, with a sprawling, sparse crown. Fruits are large (up to 400 g), apple-shaped, ribbed, bright yellow. The pulp is light yellow, medium dense, juicy, aromatic. There are almost no stony cells. Fruits are stored up to 3 months.
Teplovskaya - quince grade of good winter hardiness and productivity. The trees are medium-sized, medium-sized fruits, sometimes large, apple-visible, yellow. The pulp is dense, aromatic, with a large number of stony cells located around the core. Fruits are stored 3-4 months.
Diseases and Pests
Quince is relatively little susceptible to disease and pest attack.
One of the most unpleasant quince diseases is the death of ovaries. The causative agent of the disease is a fungal infection. Mycelium hibernates in dried fruits and infected branches. Brown spots appear on the leaves, which gradually grow and cover the entire leaf plate. During flowering, spores of the fungus also fall on the stigmas. There they germinate, penetrate into young ovaries and destroy them.
Other quince diseases are also leaf lumps and fruit rot.
Leaf moth. The most harmful is the serpentine-moth and the round-moth. Their caterpillars feed on the leaves of almost all fruit species.
Fight against diseases and pests. Preventive measures
- The dried fruits of quince are harvested and destroyed, and dry and broken twigs are cut to prevent the death of ovaries, brown spots and leaf-moths.
- From the moment of bud swelling and before flowering begins, the tree is sprayed with a 0.1% solution of foundationazole and a 0.15% solution of dipterex against decay of the ovaries, against leaf-moth moths, etc.
- During the flowering of quince, a 0.08-0.1 percent solution of foundationazol is sprayed against decay of the ovaries.
- After flowering is completed, a 0.1% solution of baseazole is sprayed, but in combination with a 0.12% dipterex solution, it is against rotting of the ovaries, against the brownishness of the leaves, fruit rot and some pests.
- If damaged by oidium, 12-14 days after spraying (after flowering) is treated with the same preparations as in the previous spraying.
I love the fruits of this tree, and quince jam is just a fairy tale! And as my grandmother says, she does not know a person who could not grow this tree. If you succeed, then you will undoubtedly be awarded a large harvest of this tree, not for nothing that it was considered a symbol of fertility! And if you already have experience growing quinces, we will gladly listen to your advice! Please leave comments on the article.