Gedihium - Tropical Javanese Ginger
At first glance, luxurious inflorescences and the original green of hedichiums are associated with bright tropical flora. This is one of the rarest - and most exotic - indoor and greenhouse plants. Butterfly-like flowers in prickly inflorescences and a special yellow-orange palette stand out nicely against other indoor crops. The beauty of unusual inflorescences, bright character and complex care make hedichium an exclusive star. And this bulb is not suitable for everyone, since there are many difficulties in growing this fragrant plant.
- Tropical spicy lily
- Types of hedichia
- Growing conditions for indoor hedichiums
- Hedichium lighting and plant placement
- Temperature conditions for hedichium and ventilation
- Home Care
- Hedichium irrigation and humidity
- Hedichium fertilizer and fertilizer composition
- Trimming and forming hedichia
- Hedichium transplant and substrate
- Diseases, pests and growing problems
- Hedichia breeding
Tropical spicy lily
Among the exotic plants that came to us from the tropical climate, not all cultures really justify their outlandish status. Tropical exotics do not necessarily look like the stars of a colorful island jungle. But hedichium is not concerned. A really bright, original and unique in its unusualness plant in any circumstances immediately reveals its origin. Hedichiae seemed to have magically migrated into pots and tubs from colorful Indian landscapes. In nature, they are inhabitants of the humid tropical forests of Southeast Asia and exotic islands, but the hedichiae are associated, first of all, with the rich flora of India, being one of the most vibrant local cultures there.
Hedichiums (Hedychium) - representatives of the Ginger family (Zingiberaceae) The folk names of hedichium vividly illustrate the beauty of this culture. Spicy lily, Javanese ginger, butterfly flower, Kahili ginger, butterfly ginger, ginger lily, garland flower - this is a diverse name for this rare and very valuable plant. Almost all hedichiae are very similar to each other externally, differing only in color scheme and structural features of inflorescences. They are easily recognizable against the background of other tropical stars.
Hedichiums are flowering exotics. The main decoration of the plant, of course, is precisely its flowering. But the general decorativeness, the ratio of foliage and inflorescences should not be underestimated: creating a bright tropical background, foliage is in perfect harmony with the flowering of this culture. This is a fast-growing plant, amazing at the pace of its development. Tuberous, constantly growing, creeping rhizomes, narrow-oval leaves of a light color are practically typical of all original exotics from among ginger cultures. The leaves are sessile, leafless, grasp the shoot, are located symmetrically on straight and very strong shoots. But here the flowering of hedichium is very different from related plants.
The flowering of hedichia depends on the conditions of detention, species, variety and even weather characteristics (light intensity) in each particular year. The total flowering period lasts from April to October, most hedichia bloom during the summer or in August-September. Inflorescence brushes are spike-shaped, dense or loose, apical, composed of asymmetric spongy flowers with very long stamens. Gedihium fully justifies its name with an intense, spicy, complex aroma. The fruits of hedichium are no less attractive than inflorescences. They open, revealing a bright color on the inside and do not fall for a long time, decorating the plant no less than luxurious flowers. The reddish, original color of the boxes glowing from the inside is often used in compositions by florists.
It should be noted that if the hedichium is provided with really optimal conditions, then this plant will please with almost uninterrupted flowering. But in living rooms a year-round parade is a rarity, and such an effect can only be achieved if kept in a greenhouse.
Types of hedichia
In room culture, only two species of more than fifty hedichiums are actively used. At the same time, Gardner's hedichium is more decorative and less capricious, and, as a result, more common.
Gedichium Gardner (Hedychium gardnerianum) - a herbaceous perennial whose maximum height in a pot culture is limited to 1 m. Seated oval leaves with an uneven-wavy surface and a pointed tip delight with a light shade of green. The leaves reach a length of 40-50 cm. The leaves appear soft, often curiously bend, increasing the similarity of texture with fabric. The inflorescence brushes are delicate, symmetrical, flaunted with a golden hue of a luminous color of flowers. At first, dense, inflorescences become more and more openwork and transparent. Each individual flower resembles a butterfly in shape, although it is not as large as that of other species. The beauty of the petals is emphasized by long stamens ending in orange anthers. Fruiting in the Gardner hedichium is no less attractive than flowering. The opening reddish pod-shaped boxes look elegant and original at the same time.
Crowned Gedihium, or crowned hedichium (Hedychium coronarium) - a charming view that, by its graceful inflorescences, is able to compete with orchids. The leaves are elongated-oval, relatively compact, with a beautiful sharpened edge and rich color. The edge of the lower side makes it unusual; on the upper, yellowness often appears unevenly. Large flowers are collected in dense spikelets of inflorescences and amaze with their trembling beauty, resembling delicate tropical moths. All crowned hedichiums are characterized by a spicy, sweetish aroma. There are many varieties and with a pure white color.
In the botanical collections you can find a very interesting plant - Horsefield hedichium (Hedychium horsfieldii) It is distinguished by its original butterfly-like inflorescences located in graceful tassels. The leaves are very large, more saturated color, up to half a meter in length. The flowers are cream or white-green, with a miniature lip and rounded, underdeveloped stamens that form the original decoration at the top of the flower. This is a very fragrant plant.
Growing conditions for indoor hedichiums
It’s not so difficult to find suitable conditions for hedichia. They adapt well to ordinary living rooms, even if they do not allow the active use of luxurious flowering accents indoors, “tied” to the windows. At the same time, the main surprise is the opportunity to abandon the cool wintering, which is so difficult to recreate in apartments. Due to the good adaptability, hedichiae are considered much easier to grow plants than their counterparts from the Ginger family.
Hedichium lighting and plant placement
Due to its forest origin, hedichiums can adapt well to insufficient lighting. Despite the status of tropical exotics, they tolerate partial shade and do not really like the direct bright sun at noon, but they will not give up several hours of the morning or evening sun. The most magnificent flowering in indoor hedichiums can be observed in diffuse, soft, but intense lighting. But with the distance of the containers from the window, you can freely experiment, checking how well the plant will feel in a particular room. During the winter, hedichiaeum is better to move to the most lighted places in the house.
The window sills of the windows of southern or western orientation are considered the best place for hedichia. By artificial illumination for this culture, it will not be possible to compensate for the reduction in light or its movement far from the window.
Hedichia require space. These are solo plants that are used only in large rooms. They look great in spacious studios, halls, overwhelmingly affect the rooms of a small area. Javanese ginger is great for creating a tropical winter garden.
Temperature conditions for hedichium and ventilation
Hedichiums are one of the most heat-loving indoor plants. But the selection of the right conditions for them is a very difficult task, because a compromise must be found between the ability to maintain high air humidity at ideal temperatures. In an optimal environment, they are afraid of even ordinary coolness, the temperature at which most indoor plants prefer to winter. It is desirable to grow hedichia in a room where the air temperature does not fall below 20 degrees Celsius in the spring and summer. But at the same time, hot conditions should be supplemented by very high levels of humidity. If there is no opportunity to create a tropical environment, then the plant is kept at cooler temperatures, up to 16-20 degrees, which will allow to maintain decorativeness at medium humidity. Clarify what the plant is used to is better when buying.
Wintering of hedichiums does not require a special temperature regime and depends on the habits of the plant and on whether it is taken out to fresh air in the summer. If hedichium is grown purely as an indoor culture, then it is better to leave the temperatures unnamed. If the plant is used as partly garden or in the flower center it has been accustomed to a cool wintering, then you can lower the temperature. The maximum allowable decrease is up to 10 degrees. The conditions usual for wintering a plant also need to be specified when buying a plant.
Hedichiums respond well to outdoor seating in the summer, and can be taken out to sheltered areas of balconies, terraces or garden seating areas. They are not afraid of drafts, but they do not like a sharp temperature drop.
Hedichiae are exotic, but not the most difficult to grow. These are plants for experienced gardeners and those who can afford regular care for them, preventing the drying of the soil. Due to the fact that the usual growing conditions in a hot, humid environment can be slightly changed in living rooms, it is easier to grow hedichium than some of its brothers. The main advantage of this plant is flowering, which does not require the creation of special conditions for a strict dormancy and specific care.
Hedichium irrigation and humidity
The love of hedichium is the main problem when growing this plant. Spicy lily needs a very plentiful watering and constant soil moisture. But at the same time, like all tuberous ones, it does not tolerate extreme waterlogging and constant stagnation of water. You can find balance only if you bookmark quality drainage and choose the right soil. In the summer, the plant may need watering every 2 days. For a dormant period in winter, watering is reduced, maintaining a constant, but very light soil moisture. The frequency and intensity of watering is reduced by 2-3 times, focusing on the rate of drying of the soil in the pot.
High humidity indicators are a prerequisite for growing hedichium. The minimum permissible values are 60%, but it is better if the air humidity exceeds 70%. The higher the air temperature, the higher the humidity indicators should be. If hedichium is grown in restrained-warm conditions, then it is content with average humidity. Dry air causes a loss of decorative foliage, intensive drying of the ends of the leaves, gradually spreading further along the leaf plate.
To create suitable conditions, one spray can not do. Hedichiae in room culture can be grown only if humidifiers are installed. If you combine the use of trays with water and wet pebbles, expanded clay or moss with frequent spraying, you can achieve the same effect as when using humidifiers.
Hedichium fertilizer and fertilizer composition
Fertilizing for hedichium contribute throughout the entire period of active growth. Feeding at the flowering stage is especially important when the plant needs an increased content of potassium and phosphorus in the soil. For hedichium spend 1 feeding per month or 3 weeks. You can use another option - frequent, weekly fertilizing with reduced doses of fertilizers in the spring, at the beginning of growth, and then 1 feeding per month is enough. During the dormant period, in autumn and winter, the plant is not fed, but if the conditions are optimal and the hedichia continue to bloom, then feeding is continued until flowering is completed.
For hedichiums, it is better to use complex universal fertilizers. This plant can be grown with long-acting fertilizers added to the soil during transplantation.
Trimming and forming hedichia
In fact, compulsory pruning comes down to sanitation. Faded peduncles and dry leaves are regularly removed from hedichia. After flowering, it is advisable to cut the shoots at a height of about 10 cm.
Hedichium transplant and substrate
Hedichia should be transplanted only as necessary. Tuberous roots produce new processes, the plant develops the substrate and grows, gradually expanding. The larger the hedichium, the more attractive it is. Therefore, plants are planted in large containers and allow them to develop freely. A transplant is carried out only when the entire substrate is mastered. It is best to hold it at the beginning of active growth, in early spring.
For hedichium, any breathable, light, fertile soil is suitable. A neutral reaction is preferred; the plant reacts equally oppressed to acidic or calcareous soils. If the soil is mixed independently, then equal parts of sand, humus, leaf, turf soil and peat can be combined. Loosening additives will reduce the risk of soil compaction and acidification during heavy irrigation.
These are large and constantly growing plants requiring large containers. The minimum size of containers for hedichia is 40-50 cm. You can grow hedichia in large flower-beds, flower boxes and tubs. Preferred containers are the width of which is much higher than the height. The containers must have large openings for water drainage.
When transplanting a hedichium, it is worthwhile not to injure the fleshy thickened roots. Gedihium does not have to be handled, but the plant must be handled carefully. At the bottom of the tank lay a high layer of drainage.
Diseases, pests and growing problems
One of the main advantages of hedichiums is its resistance to pests. Only spider mites annoy this exotism, and even then only if the rules of care are violated and when kept in very dry air. In the vicinity of infected plants, hedichium can be affected by scale insects. Any pests should be treated immediately with insecticide treatment.
The most common problem in growing hedichium is the drying of the ends of the leaves. Greens lose their decorative effect not only in dry air, but also with a lack of potassium or improper feeding.
The lack of flowering in this plant is not necessarily associated with temperature conditions or care, changes in watering or top dressing during the dormant period. Hedichiae do not bloom even when they are in too poor lighting.
The easiest way to propagate spicy lilies is by separation. Hedichium in large quantities forms daughter plants, is constantly growing, and the separation of large "colonies" allows you to get several flowering bushes.Independent plants are very rarely separated, because it will take more than one year to build up a sufficient number of children for lush flowering. At least one strong shoot and powerful roots should remain in each dividend.
You can grow hedichium from seeds. For this plant, it is advisable to pre-soak them for a day. For sowing, use a sand-peat mixture or combine the substrate and sand in equal parts. Surface sowing on moist soil with a cover of 3-5 mm of the substrate, greenhouse conditions with lower heating and constant high humidity are the main conditions for seed germination. The first shoots can appear only after a few months. The first flowering of hedichium from seeds can be expected no earlier than the third year.