Peperomia (Peperomia) Is a genus of perennial evergreen herbaceous plants of the Pepper family (Piperaceae) with decorative leaves and shoots thickened in nodes. Plant height varies from 15 to 50 cm. About 1000 species of peperomia are known, most of which come from tropical regions of Asia and America. A variety of peperomies have a rich outfit and invariably stand out among other plants with original leaves - leathery and shiny, smooth or shriveled, green or multi-colored. There are peperomies with erect, drooping or creeping shoots. In the culture of peperomia they are used as decorative leaf plants and grown in a room or in the open ground. This article will tell about the features of peperomia care.
- What do peperomia look like?
- Features of growing peperomia
- Peperomia care at home
- Popular types of peperomia
- The main difficulties in growing peperomia
- Useful properties of peperomia in the house
What do peperomia look like?
Peperomia is extremely diverse in shape, size and color of leaves. The color of the leaves can be light or dark green, brown, olive, golden, silver-striped, with white or yellow spots, stains. Peperomia leaves are most often whole-marginal. Their surface can be smooth or pubescent, as well as rough, wrinkled.
Small white peperomy flowers are collected in dense spike-shaped or cob-shaped inflorescences on long peduncles. On a well-developed bush, there are usually 10-15 inflorescences. At room temperature, peperomia seeds do not ripen.
Features of growing peperomia
Location: All types of peperomia do not tolerate a drop in temperature, so in winter they are kept at 18-20 degrees. They prefer good lighting, but can grow in partial shade, even under artificial lighting. Do not tolerate only direct sunlight.
Watering: Cautious. Between watering, the soil is allowed to dry, but at the same time they are not allowed to start withering of the peperomia leaves. In winter, very little is watered; lukewarm water is used for irrigation.
Air humidity: Peperomia prefer moderate humidity. In the summer, from time to time, the leaves are sprayed. In winter, do not spray.
Breeding: Propagate peperomia by cuttings. Bush-like forms are leafy, and erect and ampelous are stem.
Transfer: If possible - rare, if necessary, transplanted into a larger pot in the spring every few years.
Peperomia care at home
Peperomia is a rather unpretentious plant, it is successfully grown in the room with proper care, but it does not tolerate drafts. For peperomia, a warm place with bright diffused lighting or partial shade is chosen. Green-leaved peperomies are less photophilous, and variegated peperomia are more demanding of light (when it is deficient, they turn green), but they do not tolerate direct sunlight. Peperomia grow well in artificial light. With a lack of light, peperomium leaves lose their decorative effect: they become dull, turn pale.
Peperomia is watered regularly and moderately with soft lukewarm water. Between watering it is necessary to allow the soil to dry (but not to allow leaf withering). In winter, peperomia is watered less, it is kept at a moderate temperature (18-20 degrees, warm soil is important).
Types of peperomia with fleshy leaves carry dry air; peperomia with delicate leaves need moist air and frequent spraying. In a warm room, peperomium leaves are periodically sprayed from April to September; when kept in cool and winter spraying is undesirable. From excessive watering, from too humid air, due to “cold feet”, peperomium leaves brighten, lose their luster, and become deformed. Weeping spots may appear on them - as a result, they fall off. Also, from stagnation of moisture in the soil, the leaves, petioles and stems rot (rot spots can become covered with gray or pinkish-white bloom - fungal mycelium), root rot develops.
For growing peperomia, shallow pots are chosen, since their roots are quite short, thin and delicate. There must be one at the bottom of the pot, or better, several drainage holes. When landing, arrange a high (6 cm) drainage. In spring or summer, young peperomies transship annually, plants older than three years - two years later. Transplantation of old plants is carried out as necessary. The substrate should be nutritious and loose: leafy earth, humus, peat and sand (2: 1: 1: 0.5). Or: leafy, humus, turfy land, peat and sand in equal shares. Planting peperomia in heavy soil leads to root rot.
The tops of long shoots of peperomia pinch in the spring (to cause their branching), the "bald" plant is pruned. From April to September, peperomia is fed with full mineral fertilizer every three weeks.
Popular types of peperomia
Shriveled Peperomia (Peperomia caperata)
An exquisite miniature plant with small, dark green, corrugated leaves on long fragile petioles. Leaves are densely collected on shortened stems. Elegant spike-shaped inflorescences are snow-white, white as a cloud, towering above the dark mass of leaves. A very attractive plant for indoor floriculture. Soil: a nutritious loose mixture of sheet, humus earth and sand (1: 1: 0.5).
Clusiellaria peperomia (Peperomia clusiifolia)
Large plant with ascending, thick fleshy stems rooted in the lower nodes. The leaves are alternate, with short petioles (no more than 1 cm), large (up to 15 cm long., 6-8 cm wide.), Obovate with a blunt or notched apex and more or less wedge-shaped, sometimes slightly eared base; very thick, fleshy, dark green with a reddish tint and dark purple narrow border around the edge, matte. Homeland - Antilles, Venezuela. In indoor culture, the Variegata garden form is also well known - with leaves on the middle vein dark green with light green spots, further to the periphery milky or yellowish with a reddish tint and bright purple border around the edge. There are variegated forms of yellowish or reddish hues.
Peperomia magnolia (Peperomia magnoliaefolia)
Plants with abundantly branching, erect, or ascending, fleshy, reddish stems, rooted in the lower nodes. The leaves are alternate, with short (2 cm) slightly winged petioles up to 15 cm long., 3-8 cm wide. Rounded to obovate-elliptic almost scapular, with a rounded, often notched apex and a wedge-shaped or suddenly narrowed base. Thick, leathery, green, shiny. Homeland - Antilles, Panama, North South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guiana). In addition to the typical form, the Variegata garden form is very popular with irregularly shaped white and yellow spots on the leaves. Species close to Peperomia obtusifolia (Peperomia dupolifolia).
Peperomia pereskylistny (Peperomia pereskiifolia)
A plant with long ascending, later lodging and rooting blunt-ribbed stems. Leaves 3-5 in whorls, 3-5 cm long., 2-3 cm wide., Elliptical or rounded rhomboid, with a blunt apex, three arched veins, very hard, leathery, dark green. Homeland - the center and north of South America, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Peru.
Silver peperomia (Peperomia argyreia)
A compact plant with a shortened stalk carrying regular, crowded, like rosettes, leaves. Leaves with long (more than 10 cm) dark purple petioles, 6–9 cm long., 5–8 cm wide., Ovate, with a short-pointed apex and thyroid base, with 9–11 arched veins, dark green above the veins. , between veins - light, silvery, from below - light green. Homeland - North South America, Venezuela, Brazil. Soil: leaf and compost earth, sand (2: 2: 1).
Peperomia silver gray (Peperomia griseoargentea)
The species is similar in form of growth to the previous one. Leaves 8-9 cm long., 3-6 cm wide., With long petioles exceeding the length of the plate, round-ovate, obtuse at apex, heart-shaped or thyroid at the base with 7-9 arched veins, silver-green, shiny, with slightly wavy surface and edge. Homeland - Brazil. In room culture, the Nigra garden form with black-green leaves along the veins is also well known.
Peperomia vulgaris (Peperomia obtusifolia)
A species that is very similar to Peperomia magnolia, from which it differs in the details of the structure of the ear and fruit. In a vegetative state, it is difficult to recognize by its more open growth form, somewhat less leafy and more dull top of the leaves. Homeland - Antilles, Mexico, the center and north of South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Suriname). Several garden forms are known: Alba - with milky-white or cream flakes; Albo-variegata - with leaves, gray-green in the center, silver along the edge, etc. The plant is relatively undemanding, but light-loving to care for. The soil should be fertile: a mixture of sheet, sod land, peat and sand (1: 1: 1: 1).
The main difficulties in growing peperomia
Peperomia leaves with brown tips and edges. The reason is an unexpected drop in temperature. Remove all damaged leaves, protect the plant from drafts, avoid cold window sills.
Unexpected leaf fall in succulent species. The reason is a delay in watering. Peperomia is watered when the soil dries a little, but before the leaves begin to wither.
Peperomia leaves are sluggish and faded. The spots rotted on the stem or leaves. Cork-like growths on the leaves below. The reason is waterlogging of the soil, especially in winter.
Unexpected fall of peperomy leaves in winter. The reason is too low air temperature.
Useful properties of peperomia in the house
In all bushy peperomia: in the coniferous, silver and shriveled ones, the leaves are variegated. They perfectly coexist with contradictions. The very form of the bush of peperomia, which can be called a "friendly family", and variegated leaves indicate the friendly nature of the plant, its ability to reconcile contradictions.
It is good to have any of the bushy peperomies in the house where people live, in whose character a rebellious spirit is clearly manifested, those who, even out of their will, out of habit, will do something contrary to the wishes of others.
Peperomia maintain the atmosphere of the house in a calm state. Where there is peperomia, benevolence and peace prevail in the atmosphere. With peperomia, the very atmosphere of the house inclines a person to sincerely show concern for his neighbor.
It is believed that this houseplant has a strong influence on the physical health of a person. It is aimed, like most plants of the Cancer sign, primarily on the organs and systems that this zodiac sign controls: the digestive tract, mammary glands, and gall bladder. They say that neat little peperomies on the windowsill contribute to the fusion of sutures and the healing of wounds of these organs.
As far as this is true, we will not take it upon ourselves, but the fact that peperomia is unpretentious and very beautiful is a fact.