Plant root stimulants
Root formation stimulants are used to stimulate growth and development, as well as for the actual formation of the root system of the stem during propagation in this way. Of course, root formation stimulants cannot be called those wonderful preparations that can “resurrect” the lignified cuttings and lead to the formation of roots on it, say, if it is cut in the middle of summer. But if you strictly follow the timing of cutting shoots, cutting them into cuttings and planting in a greenhouse, then root formation stimulants will certainly help. The fact of the matter is that there are such cultures as, for example, snow leopard, hawthorn or gooseberry, which root very poorly or do not root at all without stimulants of root formation.
In addition to stimulating the formation of the root system of a stem of a particular crop, these stimulants can also contribute to the development of additional roots when transplanting seedlings to a permanent place, for example, when a part of the root is cut off from a seedling, with severe injuries of the root system, and they will also help healthy roots adapt quickly to new soil conditions.
What are root stimulants?
Often, these are biologically active substances, or, as they are also called, phytohormones, which are formed in each plant in the natural environment, and the more phytohormones accumulate in the shoots, the easier this or that plant is rooted. For example, there are a lot of them in currants, many in viburnum, chokeberry and other plants.
Perhaps the most famous phytohormones are indolyl-3-acetic and naphthylacetic acids. These two main substances are included in a huge number of drugs that are considered to be growth promoters, in one or another dosage, this is Charkor, as well as Hetero-Auxin or Kornerost, although β-indolylacetic acid is the active substance here. These drugs can stimulate cell division and stretching, which causes the formation and growth of the root system.
Interesting fact: β-indolylacetic acid, considered the basis of the drug Cornerost, was removed by scientists almost a hundred years ago from mold cultures. Like this: mold not only hurts, but also helps people.
However, there is another type of phytohormones, or root formation stimulants, which are not based on natural products, but on their synthetic substitutes, say, indolyl-3-butyric acid, a drug of a different plan and is called a little differently - Kornevin, or his overseas companion Clonex (gel).
The action of Kornevin is interesting, which may well be identical to other similar drugs. When Kornevin (dry or in solution) gets on the cut surface of the cuttings (of course, the lower part), its active substance begins to literally irritate the tissues and stimulate the formation of new cells. In the soil, Kornevin is converted to Hetero-Auxin, which stimulates the further development of the root system.
What else is in the composition of stimulants?
In addition to the main element, which just provides stimulation of the formation of the root system and accelerates its growth, auxiliary preparations, such as, for example, ordinary vitamins, are present in the preparations. They in some way increase growth activity, although it is clear that only they, that is, vitamins, although they will affect the root growth, are imperceptible. Usually, vitamin C and thiamine are auxiliary components of almost any modern root formation stimulator.
Often, drugs obtained on the basis of various natural extracts are used as stimulators of growth activity. For example, drugs like Zircon, Epin (can even be extracted from pollen), Radifarm (polysaccharides, steroids, polypeptides, amino acids, zinc, vitamins, nitrogen), Ribav (a whole mixture of amino acids) are known, all these are real bioregulators of natural origin, and they also have a stimulating effect on the formation of the root system, its growth and development, and also increase the immunity of plants, that is, their resistance to various kinds of pests and diseases and temperature extremes.
Separately, I want to talk about Zircon, this is nothing but the hydroxycinnamic acid known to many, which is extracted from echinacea purpurea. Zircon, like its counterparts, is considered to be a real immunomodulator, and at the same time it stimulates the formation of the root system of cuttings.
Forms of release of drugs and methods of processing plants
There can be quite a lot of forms for the release of drugs to stimulate the growth activity of the root system and its actual appearance on the cuttings - it is a powder (different, but often just white), and tablets that dissolve perfectly in water without forming a precipitate, and liquid in ampoules, droppers or screwdrivers. The third option is the most convenient, because you can literally pour as much drug as you need, then screw the jar and put it out of the reach of children. The main thing here is to comply with storage conditions and shelf life. Often, drugs are also available in the form of a gel (Clonex).
How to use root stimulants?
Typically, this information is indicated in the instructions, it also refers to the dosage of the drug, and these data should be guided. Do not underestimate or overestimate the numbers on the label: both of these can lead to the fact that the roots are formed either in insufficient quantity or may not appear at all.
If we talk about the most common applications of root formation stimulants, then this is either soaking the cuttings or the root system in a solution diluted according to the instructions (usually at night), or dipping the drug in a dry powder, if it comes to cuttings of hard-rooted crops (if such admission allows instructions on the packaging).
Most often, aqueous solutions in which cuttings or the root system of seedlings are soaked overnight are prepared from drugs such as Heteroauxin and Kornerost (if they are in liquid form, then 0.5 g or 4-5 tablets are needed per bucket of water); Cornevin is usually dissolved in water per gram or 10 grams per bucket of water, Radifarma and Ribava need only a couple of drops per liter of water or two dozen drops per bucket, Zircon - 4 drops per liter or 40 drops per bucket of water, and Charcora - a milliliter per five liters of water or twice as much - ten.
In addition to soaking in a solution of a growth stimulator, it is used, as we have already mentioned, immersing the cuttings in a dry preparation or dusting the cuttings with this preparation using a brush. The second option is more economical. In order for the drug to “stick” to the cuttings, the latter must first be dipped in water, and then dipped about a centimeter into a dry preparation.
This is often done if they use the drug Cornevin or Clonex gel.
In addition, you can independently prepare a powder stimulating the formation of roots, using other drugs. To do this, you need to mix the solution intended for rooting with ordinary activated carbon, which is sold in any pharmacy, or with talc, if for some reason it was not possible to get activated carbon. After that, the mixture is simply dried to flowability. In this mixture, you can deepen the cuttings for a couple of centimeters.
Important! After soaking or placing in a dry preparation, the cuttings should immediately be planted in a greenhouse in a special soil, consisting of humus, river sand and nutrient soil. The dissolved drug must be replaced by another, its shelf life, as a rule, is only one day.
Natural rooting stimulants and methods of their use
For those who do not want to mess with any drugs in packages and pay money for them, we offer several ways, using which, you can also try to grow high-quality planting material from cuttings that were cut in due time.
First option - this is flower honey; they say that grape cuttings take root very well in it. Honey has a rather strong stimulating effect, of course, if the dosage is not too small. It is necessary to breed honey in exceptionally soft and warm boiled water, it is fine if it is melt or rain water. On a bucket of water you need to pour a couple of tablespoons with a pot, stir everything well and the resulting solution can be used both for rooting cuttings, and for soaking the root system of seedlings before planting in a permanent place.
If you soak grapes in a honey solution, immerse its chubuki in this solution completely and not for the night, but for two days.
Willow water It is also considered a strong stimulator of root formation in hard-rooted crops and stimulation of growth activity when planting seedlings on the site. In order to get willow water, you need to cut a hundred pieces of willow branches, about a meter long, and put them in water. It is necessary to wait so that on the twigs of willow, parts of which are immersed in water, the rudiments of the root system appear, then they should be removed from the water, and the resulting liquid should be used to root the cuttings and to water the seedlings newly planted on the site. It is well known that willow water contains quite a lot of phytohormones and it is rumored that it can compete with known and rather expensive drugs in terms of effectiveness.
You can use exactly the same way. twigs of pyramidal poplar, only a bucket of water, as in the case of willow, you need not a hundred shoots, but only five dozen of them.
A well-known and excellent stimulator of growth activity and a “drug” that causes the growth of the root system of cuttings is aloe juice. In order to prepare the most effective solution, it is necessary to dissolve three tablespoons of aloe juice in half a liter of water, after which the solution should be allowed to stand in a dark and warm room for about a week. This will be a concentrate for obtaining a liquid suitable for soaking cuttings in it, for the sake of obtaining actually new plants with roots, and seedlings, for their faster rooting in a new place: it is necessary to dilute the resulting composition in a bucket of water.
Yeast, ordinary, baking, also a very effective stimulator of root formation of cuttings. To prepare the miraculous composition, be sure to use water that has been boiled. In a yeast solution, there is a lot of vitamin B and many useful trace elements. To prepare the solution, you need to dilute 500 g of yeast in five liters of water. Next, in the solution, you should soak the cuttings for a day, and then immediately plant them in a greenhouse. By the way, the remaining solution diluted ten times can be periodically (once a week) additionally watered cuttings planted in the greenhouse.
Mechanical effects will also help.
There are also methods of mechanical action on the cuttings, which can facilitate root formation. For example, hawthorn cuttings before soaking in any of the growth stimulators mentioned above are slightly flattened with a hammer, and on dogwood cuttings and daisies make shallow cuts with a sharp budding knife or a dangerous razor, this increases the yield of the number of rooted cuttings by 25-30%.
In general, be aware that the use of root formation stimulants, which can serve as excellent stimulators of the growth activity of the root system of seedlings, is justified and bears fruit. But stimulants alone, be they the best and most expensive, without observing the temperature, humidity, timing of cutting and planting cuttings and seedlings, only stimulants will not be able to create a miracle. Therefore, they should be considered only a part of a large complex of measures relating to the reproduction and cultivation of plants of various species, from modest gumi to majestic walnut.