What has America bestowed, or: are its more reliable?
Trillium - A wonderful plant for a shady garden. And remember that the peak of decorative planting of trilliums does not reach immediately, but over the years, as the rhizomes grow. But transplants do not require for many years.
Plants are decorative throughout the season, mainly due to their unusual leaves, decorated in some species with dark spotted marble mosaics. But, of course, the peak of decorativeness occurs at the time of flowering. In the conditions of the Moscow Region, this is the second half of May - the beginning of June. In addition, a number of species are also decorative at the end of summer, in August, when dark red berries ripen.
Now let's see what trilliums have passed the test of the Russian climate.
First of all, these are our Far Eastern species.
Kamchatka Trillium (Trillium camschatcense).
One of the two trilliums growing in our country, and at the same time one of the most decorative trilliums in general. It grows on Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, in the south of Kamchatka, and outside of Russia - in Japan (Hokkaido), Northeast China and the Korean Peninsula. It occurs mainly in forests, valleys and on mountain slopes, in well-moistened places, in birch forests, willow-alder forests with tall grass, in thickets.
This plant is from 15 to 40 cm high (sometimes even up to 60 cm, although it did not grow above 40 cm in my garden). The rhizome is thick, short (3-4 cm), oblique. The pedicel is erect, about 9 cm long. The petals are white, 4 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, rounded at the end. This trillium blooms in early May for two weeks. Seeds ripen in August. The plant easily forms self-seeding, seedlings develop slowly and bloom at the earliest at the age of five.
In Kamchatka, the local population calls the trillium “cuckoo tomarki” and eats fruits. The Japanese consider the fruits not only edible, but also medicinal, and also use a decoction of rhizomes dried in the shade for bowel diseases and as a digestive aid.
In my garden, this trillium has been growing for a long time, is unpretentious and blooms annually.
Trillium Small (Trillium smalii).
Named most likely in honor of the botanist John Small. The range of this trillium:
Russia (Sakhalin, Kuril Islands - Kunashir, Iturup, Urup), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu). It occurs in the mountains, mainly in stone-birch forests with tall grass or bamboo. More rare than Kamchatka trillium. And blooms later. Seeds ripen in mid-August. The fruits are edible.
Plants with a height of 15-25 cm, - significantly less than the Kamchatka trillium. The flower is reddish-purple, unfortunately, small and sessile, which sharply reduces the overall decorativeness of the plant. The fruit is round, without ribs, when ripe - dark red.
In gardens, this trillium is rare (due to its dim appearance), but it is quite stable in culture. Willingly grows in partial shade.
Trillium Chonoski (Trillium tschonoskii).
Named after the Japanese botanist Chonosuke Sugawa (1841-1925). It occurs from the Himalayas to Korea, including Taiwan and the Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu. Grows in deciduous or mixed forests, preferring mossy. Several very similar varieties are known.
The stem of this trillium is up to 40 cm high. The petals are white, up to 3-4 cm long and up to 2 cm wide. The berry is green.
Trillium chonoski easily interbreeds with Kamchatka.
In my garden, it grows quite successfully for many years, but it blooms poorly.
As already mentioned, the real pantry of trilliums is America. Planting stock of many species growing there can now be bought from us. Let's get to know better the “Americans."
Trillium drooping (Trillium cernuum).
The northernmost of all North American trilliums. Grows in the Great Lakes region of the United States and Newfoundland, Canada. In the south of the range it is often found in swamps and along rivers, in the north it can grow in mountain coniferous and mixed forests, and often grows with the Canadian yew tree.
© Fungus Guy
Plants with a height of 20-60 cm. Their flowers are drooping, often hide under the leaves, which makes this trillium not very interesting from the point of view of decorativeness. Petals are white or pink, with wavy edges. The berry is ovoid, 1.5-2 cm long, red-purple, drooping. We have this trillium blooms later than other species, in late May, and blooms until mid-June. Grown trillium drooping in the botanical gardens of Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Trillium erect (Trillium erectum).
The Americans themselves call it red or purple trillium, and also ... smelly Benjamin and smelly Willy. And they add: "it stinks like a wet dog." Nevertheless, the plant itself is very beautiful and not so stinky if you do not poke your nose into a flower.
Trillium erect in Canada and the United States in the northeastern states. In the south of the USA in the valleys, its white variety, Trillium erectum var. album.
This trillium occurs in mountain deciduous forests and together with rhododendrons. In the northern part of the range, often in the thickets of the Canadian yew. In Michigan, it is not uncommon in swampy lowlands along rivers, especially in tuyevniki. Further south it rises more and more into the mountains (this mainly refers to the dark red form), preferring slightly acidic and neutral moist soils. Plants with white flowers (Trillium erectum var. Album) at the same time grow mainly on slightly alkaline and richer soils.
© Francine Riez
This trillium prefers moist, slightly acidic and humus-rich soil. Plants 20-60 cm high. Petals are sharp, brown-purple, pink, greenish or white. The berry is ovoid, six-lobed, 1.6-2.4 cm long, purple or almost black, with a white form - lighter.
The plant blooms quite early - in early May.
Erect trillium has long been introduced into the culture, and in addition to two species forms - var. erectum and var. album - there are many transitional ones with pink or pale yellow color. However, it can be hybrids, including natural ones, with T. cernuum, T. flexipes, T. rugelii. Two main forms grow in my garden, and both have shown themselves to be sustainable and beautiful in culture. They bloom beautifully and regularly set seeds.
Trillium Inclined (Trillium flexipes).
One of the most “confusing” species of trilliums, from the point of view of taxonomy, it resembles both T. cernuum, and T. rugelii, and some forms of T. erectum var. album.
It grows exclusively in the United States, south of the Great Lakes. Prefers mountain forests, calcareous soils.
The plant is 20 to 50 cm tall. The petals are ovate-lanceolate, 2-5 cm long, 1-4 cm wide. The berries are very large, juicy, pink-red or purplish, if damaged, smell like fruit, ripen in early autumn.
Large Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum).
Perhaps the most famous and beloved. It has long been introduced into the culture, easy to grow, several of its very spectacular varieties are known. Americans call it white, or even big white trillium. Its flower serves as a symbol of the Canadian province of Ontario.
Distributed in the United States, south of the Great Lakes, in the north comes into the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario. It grows on well-drained slightly acidic or neutral soils in dense deciduous or mixed forests, preferring sugar maple and beech forests in the north of the range.
A height of 15-30 cm (sometimes up to 50), with a very large, diameter up to 10 cm, located above the leaves snow-white flower, which at the end of flowering acquires a characteristic pinkish tint and does not smell. The edges of the petals are slightly corrugated, staminate, the threads are yellow. The size of the flower and the height of the plant strongly depend on the size (age) of the rhizome - young plants (1-2 years of flowering) are noticeably lower than adult specimens, they have a small flower, and only by 3-4 years of flowering the plant appears in all its glory. Dimensions also depend on the specific instance. In the suburbs, this species blooms in mid-May, after a trillium erect, and blooms for almost 2 weeks. Seeds ripen by the end of August. Plants in the suburbs are resistant.
There are several forms of this trillium:
- grandiflorum - typical form, flowers bloom white, turn pink by the end of flowering;
- roseum - the flowers bloom immediately pink; the pink color may be determined by the genetic change associated with the overproduction of the corresponding pigments, since such plants often have reddish shades of leaves; the dependence of color on the type of soil, its mineral content, pH, as well as soil and air temperatures are also noted;
- polymerum - Terry mutant, quite common in this species; specific instances may differ from each other and bear their names, but they are not generally accepted.
Other forms may simply be the result of viral diseases.
In my garden, this trillium appeared about 20 years ago. All years bloomed beautifully. Its terry form is especially impressive.
Trillium Kuroboyashi (Trillium kurabayashii).
One of the most interesting trilliums, named after the Japanese biologist M. Kuroboyashi, who worked a lot with trilliums. In America, it grows in moist coniferous forests along rivers. Prefers humus-rich soil.
© Francine Riez
Stem up to 50 cm high. Leaves with dark spots. Petals up to 10 cm long, up to 3 cm wide, bright, dark red-violet. The pleasant aroma of blossoming flowers changes to unpleasant as it blooms.
The winter hardiness of this trillium in the middle lane may be insufficient, so it makes sense to cover it for the winter.
Trillium yellow (Trillium luteum).
It grows in deciduous forests and on hillsides. Prefers old forests with rich soils on a calcareous base. In nature (in Tennessee), it fills not only forests, but even roadside ditches.
In gardening, this is one of the most common trilliums. In America, it is often naturalized from gardens to surrounding forests. And appears far beyond the natural range.
Plants up to 30 cm high. The stem at the base is purple. Leaves are spotty. The flower is sessile, 6-8 cm long, bright or lemon yellow, with a lemon aroma. In the gardens, the flower takes on a greenish color. I also observe such an effect, although in the pictures the flower is lemon yellow.
In my garden, yellow trillium grows without problems. It blooms in early summer, regularly, but has not yet tied fruit.
Trillium bent (Trillium recurvatum).
It is also called the trillium of the prairie. It grows in a large part of the Mississippi River Basin, and is especially common at the confluence of the Missouri and Ohio Rivers.
It prefers rich clay soils of river floodplains, sometimes in flooded areas. Often grows with camassia and trillium sitting flowering.
Up to 40-50 cm high. Petals are vertical, up to 4 long and up to 2 cm wide, dark red-violet. Several forms are known, in particular:
- luteum with almost yellow petals;
- shayi, in which the petals are light yellow or greenish yellow.
The garden is unpretentious. It blooms regularly in late May - early June. Unfortunately, it loses in beauty to other trilliums.
Trillium sedentary, or sedentary (Trillium sessile).
It must be remembered that another trillium is often sold under this name. Common trillium is sitting-flowered in the eastern United States. Prefers clay calcareous soils in floodplains. But it grows in the mountains. Often found with other trilliums, as well as with the liver and thyroid podophyllus. Americans call this trillium sessile or toad.
This is a small plant up to 25 cm high. Its leaves are up to 10 cm long and up to 8 cm wide, green or bluish-green. Sometimes with a silver sheen and very rarely - with spots of a bronze hue that quickly disappear as they bloom. Petals up to 3 cm long and 2 cm wide, pointed at the ends, brown-red or yellow-green, reddening over time, with a rather strong spicy smell. The form of viridiflorum flowers are yellow-green.
Pretty early trillium.
Despite the endurance attributed to the species, in my garden it crawls to the surface not every year. And the flowers, in my opinion, are a gloomy hue.
Trillium oval (Trillium sulcatum).
This trillium has been singled out a quarter century ago. Prior to this, it was considered as a species or hybrid from T. erectum.
It occurs in a small area from West Virginia to eastern Kentucky in the forests, often together with T. cuneatum, T. flexipes, and T. grandiflorum, and tends to neutral or slightly acidic soils, moist northern or eastern slopes. Often it can be seen in the forests with an admixture of Canadian Tsugi.
© Francine Riez
The plant is powerful, up to 70 cm high, with a huge flower of red-dark maroon color. The name trillium is given in the form of the edges of the petal. The petals themselves are up to 5 cm long and 3 cm wide. The seed box is round-pyramidal, red. The flowers have a rather pleasant aroma.
There are forms with white and yellow flowers.
In the suburbs, this trillium is stable and blooms regularly, rather late.
- Konstantin Alexandrov, a collector of rare plants.