Black outside, sweet inside
Scorzoner, which is also called black and sweet root, is a perennial plant common in European countries. We are best known for the Spanish scorzoner, which is cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal plant because of its edible roots.
They are used for side dishes, seasonings for soups, canning cucumbers, and the leaves are added to salads. Due to the content of inulin and asparagine, this culture is useful for diabetes. In traditional medicine, it is used for gastrointestinal diseases, as well as a painkiller, sedative, anticonvulsant.
In culture, scorzoner is bred as a biennial plant. Although it may well propagate self-seeding. New shoots also give root residues, which are very difficult to remove, as they go deep into the soil.
The plant is cold-resistant and drought-resistant. Root crops in the earth tolerate frosts up to 30 degrees and below with deep snow cover, and seedlings - long-term cooling and spring frosts. Seeds begin to germinate at 4-5 degrees, but a temperature of 20 degrees is optimal for growth.
Scorzonera grows well where spring is warm, summers are not hot, and winters start late, and poorly in areas with late spring and early fall. In the first year, a rosette of lanceolate leaves and long, rough, fleshy roots of black or dark brown color are formed, in the second year, a stem up to 100 cm high, flowers and seeds. The scorzoners have rather large, long, cylindrical, slightly ribbed, white-yellow ones.
The root root is cylindrical, about 3-4 cm thick, the flesh is white, it secrete milky juice on the slices.
The growing season in the first year is 100-120 days. It grows well on deeply cultivated, humus-rich soils. The best predecessors are cucumbers, peas, tomatoes, potatoes, onions, that is, crops under which organic fertilizers were applied. In autumn, the soil is dug up to a depth of at least 25-30 cm. Sowing is carried out in early spring. In July (after harvesting garlic and other early vegetables) or in August, the seeds are sown in two-line (the distance between the lines is 25-30, and between the tapes - 50-60 cm) or in a single-line method (the distance between the rows is 45-50 cm), the seed placement depth - 2.5-3 cm.
In the phase of 2–3 true leaves, the plants are thinned out, leaving a distance between them of 5–6, and then 10–12 cm between them. If during summer sowing some plants shoot, then the flower stalks are removed. The scorzoner is cleaned very carefully in late autumn, as the roots break off easily, resulting in poor storage. Scorzonera hibernates well in soil, is stored worse in the cellar, so some of the plants for winter use are harvested and cut off from their leaves, the rest are left in the soil. Plants designed to produce seeds are usually not dug up. Their flowering begins in the first half of June and lasts more than a month. Seeds do not ripen evenly, so they are collected many times. Seed productivity -20 g per 1 sq. Km. m
- V.I. Brizhany