Davallia - hare foot
Davallia attracts attention with its shaggy, brownish-red rhizomes that hang over the edge of the pot, and because of which it even got the name "hare foot". The homeland of this interesting plant is the tropics, which explains its requirements for care. In Japan, Davallia is found in the wild and for many years has been exported from there in large quantities to different countries, in the form of souvenirs in the shape of a monkey.
Description of davallia
Davallia (Latin: Davallia) - a genus of perennial fast-growing, exotic-looking ferns of the family Davalliaceae. The natural area of distribution is mainly in tropical Asia, found in China, Japan, Polynesia and on the island of Java, in the Canary Islands.
Some species are widely distributed in culture, cultivated in closed ground, usually in greenhouses, often as ampelous plants.
The popular name of this fern is “hare legs”, sometimes “squirrel legs”, or “deer leg”, which is usually called the most popular species in decorative floriculture - Davallia Canaria.
Davalia is one of the most exotic-looking, fast-growing ferns. Often the choice falls on her when choosing plants for wet rooms.
Several species are grown as indoor plants, for example, Davallia dissecta, Davallia trichomanoides, Davallia slightly truncated, Davallia truncatula, Davallia five-leafed (Davallia pentaphylla), all of them epiphytic ferns with a thick rhizome substructure and covered with dense pubescence.
In greenhouses, where tropical plants are grown, D. bullata - davallia cone - necessarily growing in tropical regions of Asia, is necessarily present. In flower shops, it is very rare, since in indoor conditions it is difficult to create high humidity. Since davallia is an epiphytic plant, it is attached to pieces of bark, for which thick rhizomes, covered with red-brown or silver scales, cling.
Features of growing davallia
Light, but protected from direct rays of the sun, partial shade; in winter they are kept at a temperature of about 15 ° C and high humidity (about 70%).
In summer he prefers temperatures between 18-20 ° C, in winter - about 15 ° C.
Bright diffused light with protection against direct sunlight. It can grow without shading only on the east window.
It is plentiful in summer, moderate in winter, but the soil should be moist all the time. It is advisable to water with settled water containing no lime.
Davallia does not tolerate dry air, so the pot is placed on a pallet with wet expanded clay. Ideal humidity is about 50-55%. You can spray only occasionally from a small spray gun, otherwise the ends of the wai become brown.
Fertilizing fertilizers for indoor decorative foliage plants from May to August every two weeks. Fertilizers are taken in a dose half as much as recommended by the manufacturer. Do not use only liquid fertilizer with water for irrigation.
Annually in spring, only when the roots fill the entire pot. The soil should have a slightly acidic reaction. Soil - 1 part of light turf, 2 parts of leaf, 2 parts of peat land, 1 part sphagnum moss and 1 part sand.
Reproduction of davallia
Reproduction mainly by division or layering. On shaggy bunny paws small independent bushes appear. Cut a part of the foot with such a bush, prepare a soil mixture of equal parts of leafy soil, sphagnum moss and sand. The layering has no roots, but the cut off foot cannot be immersed in the soil - just lay it on the substrate and gently push it, you can fix it with expanded clay. Moisten the soil and place the pot with the new plant in a plastic bag. The bag does not need to be tied, just straighten it and spray it from a small spray bottle a couple of times a day, trying to prevent excessive moisture.
Pests and diseases of davallia
With abundant watering, the root begins to rot.
Very low humidity in the room leads to the drying of the tips of the wai and their subsidence, and also contributes to infection with a spider mite.
Direct sunlight causes plant burns.
Do not use preparations to give gloss to leaves.
Do not fertilize the plant in the autumn-winter period, this leads to plant disease.
For successful fern growth, light substrates must be used. In heavy plants develop poorly and can die - the soil soups and the roots do not grow.
Caring for davallia
Davallia prefer bright diffused light, they should be protected from direct sunlight. Best suited for growing on east or west windows. Plants are able to tolerate some shade, however, their growth is slowed down.
For Davallia, dense and bubbly, the optimum temperature is 18-22 ° C all year round. Lowering the temperature can cause plant death. For D. Canary in the winter, it is allowed to lower the temperature to 16-18 ° C, in this case wintering is easier.
Davallia is watered abundantly with warm, soft, settled water, as the upper layer of the substrate dries. Watering in winter can be slightly reduced, watering the next day after drying of the top soil layer. The plant is very sensitive to overdrying of the substrate - it must not be tolerated in any case. It is better to use a watering can with a narrow nose so as not to wet the rhizomes that have grown and crawling out of the pot. You can use the bottom watering.
Davallias are sensitive to dry air, therefore, when growing them, it is necessary to take measures to increase its humidity - regularly spray plants with soft, settled water, place pots with davallia on pallets with wet peat or expanded clay. D. Canary is less sensitive to dry air.
In the period from April to September, davallia is fed with diluted fertilizer (1/4 - 1/3 of the norm) for decorative leafy plants once a month. In autumn and winter they do not feed - feeding during this period can lead to a serious disease of the plant.
Davallia is transplanted approximately every 2 years, in March-April. Peat, deciduous humus and river sand mixed in equal parts can be taken as a substrate. Pots are better to take wide. At the bottom of the pot provide good drainage.
Davallia can be propagated with pieces of rhizome with 1-2 leaves. A metal support is made for a piece of rhizome, with which it is placed on the surface of the substrate. The roots appear after about 2 months.
You can try to germinate spores of davallium - in a mixture of peat and sand under a film at 20-22 ° C.
Precautions: spores of davallium can cause asthmatic reactions.
Types of davallia
Canary Davallia (Davallia canariensis)
Grows in the Canary Islands, the Iberian Peninsula, in North Africa. Perennials, climbing; the rhizome is straight, thick, covered with awl-shaped elastic brown leaves. The leaves are four times pinnately dissected, 30–45 cm long and 22–30 cm wide, leathery; leaves very densely sessile, oval-rhomboid, dissected, dentate. Petiole straight, 10-20 cm long. Sporangia are numerous, densely spaced, collected atop; goblet-shaped bedspread. Decorative look. Suitable for cool rooms.
Davallia solida (Davallia solida)
The birthplace of the species is the Malacca Peninsula, the Malay Archipelago, Polynesia, Australia. Perennial climbing plants; the rhizome is thin, woody, covered with filiform scales. The leaves are thrice pinnate, broadly triangular, 30-50 cm long and 15-25 cm wide; small-lobed, linear leaflets; fertile on each lobe with one sporangium; sterile round, serrated. Petiole up to 30 cm long, glossy, brown. Highly decorative species, used especially as an ampel plant. Suitable for warm and humid rooms.
Bubble Davallia (Davallia bullata)
The birthplace of the species is China, Japan, tropical Asia. Perennial plants; rhizome creeping, covered with light brown hairs. The leaves are thrice, four times pinnately dissected, 20-25 cm long and 15 cm wide; leaflets linear, deeply dissected, dentate at the edges. Sporangia are located on top of leaf lobes; goblet-shaped bedspread. Highly decorative look. Cultivated in warm and humid rooms.