Fuchsia - juicy colors of summer
Fuchsias are gorgeous flowering plants. Recently, fuchsias are very popular not only in Europe and in America, but also in Russia. It takes very little effort to grow them - and numerous lush fuchsia flowers with beautiful "skirts" will delight you with bright colors all summer long!
The first mention of fuchsia was recorded about 300 years ago, and since then breeders have bred more than a thousand varieties of these beauties. There are ampelous and bush varieties of fuchsia.
Fuchsias can also be grown in hanging baskets, and they can be used to form standard trees or beautiful bushes. Fuchsia can be grown at home and on the street. But in the conditions of a frosty Russian winter, they will die in the open ground, so in the fall, fuchsias must be transferred from the garden to the winter in a cool place.
Description of Fuchsia
Fuchsia, Latin - Fuchsia.
Fuchsia, a well-known houseplant, acquired a “second wind” with the production of hybrids that can, firstly, multiply by seeds, and, secondly, bloom relatively soon, 4-5 months after sowing. Since several species are mixed in the “blood” of this hybrid, it is often called hybrid fuchsia (F. x hybrida). But not only the ability to bloom in the year of sowing allows us to attribute fuchsia to summers. More importantly, it blooms all summer in the open. At the same time, fuchsia remains perennial, in winter it can be stored in a cool, bright room and blacked out in spring. Fuchsia blooms from July until the first frost.
Features of Fuchsia
Location: fuchsia is thermophilic, although there are forms that tolerate small frosts, it is moisture-loving, but it does not tolerate excess water in the soil, prefers sunny or semi-shaded windless places with nutritious soils.
Care: Regular watering, but without excess water, and top dressing with complete complex fertilizer every 10-14 days will provide abundant and continuous flowering.
Landing: When cultivated in open ground, fuchsia is planted in late May - early June, deepening the root neck by 10-20 cm. 2 weeks after planting, when the plants are well rooted, they again grow and soon bloom. The first autumn frosts of fuchsia from all groups are well tolerated, passing the necessary hardening before rest. Flowering in the Moscow region lasts until the end of September - beginning of October.
Although fuchsia is very photophilous, direct sunlight is undesirable for her. On hot noon, leaves and flowers can get severe burns.
Lush growth and plentiful long flowering are promoted by plentiful watering, frequent spraying, regular top dressing, nutritious soil and fresh air.
The plant will feel great outdoors in the summer and, very importantly, it will suffer less from pests. In a closed and hot room with dry air, aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites will probably attack it. If this happens, first of all, you should increase the air humidity and treat the bush with appropriate protective equipment. This is best done outdoors - in calm weather, in the shade, strictly following the dosage instructions.
Fuchsias should be planted in pots of a light color, since they are less heated in the sun than black or dark brown.
The substrate in the pot in fuchsia should always remain moderately moist. To avoid moisture stagnation, a drainage layer of expanded clay or fine pebbles is poured onto the bottom of the pot. The earth should be quite loose.
In rooms with dry air, fuchsia is sprayed as often as possible, but never do it under the open sky in sunny weather. Any varieties of fuchsia do not tolerate long periods of heat, especially if they are in direct sunlight.
Fuchsia is fed once a week with liquid fertilizers for balcony flowers. Top dressing begins when the first buds appear in spring. In September, for the ripening of shoots, top dressing is gradually reduced.
Wilted fuchsia flowers are regularly removed to stimulate the plant to form new buds.
Before the first night frosts, fuchsias are cleaned. Optimal - in bright, well ventilated, with a temperature of 5-10 ° C. Leaves are removed so that pests and fungi do not overwinter on them. Fuchsia is watered in winter so that only an earthen lump does not dry out. In the spring, when the plant grows again, watering is gradually increased. When the threat of night frost disappears, it is carried out under the open sky.
Fuchsia regularly undergoes anti-aging pruning so that the plant is not exposed. In the fall, before being brought into the room, the shoots are pruned by a third or two-thirds. In the spring, the shoots are again shortened by 2-3 pairs of leaves. Shoots of ampelous fuchsia are cut so that they slightly hang over the edge of the pot.
Fuchsia is undemanding to the soil. Adult plants can be planted in any light fertile soil with a neutral reaction, with the addition of peat, sand and perlite. A small amount of clay can be added to hold nutrients in the soil. For adult plants, mixtures of turf land, peat, humus and compost (2: 1: 1: 1) or leaf soil, peat and sand (3: 2: 1) can be recommended.
Each spring, fuchsias are transplanted into a new substrate from a mixture of turf, humus, leafy soil and sand (2: 2: 2: 1). Pots take more than the previous 2-3 cm in diameter.
During flowering, you can not rearrange fuchsia from place to place or turn the bush, as this can lead to dropping buds and flowers.
If flowering quickly ends, the cause may be too wintering, excessive or insufficient watering, or a lack of light during the growing season.
Waterlogging of the soil is indicated by the appearance on the leaves of brown spots with yellowish edges. Withered flowers should be removed in a timely manner to prevent the formation of seeds, otherwise the flowering period is reduced. With proper care, young fuchsias will certainly bloom and all summer will delight you with their buds, lanterns and bright elegant flowers.
Propagation of fuchsia by cuttings
For cuttings, young fuchsia cuttings should be taken. Slightly lignified fuchsia cuttings will also give roots, but this process may take a little longer. The length of the fuchsia cuttings may depend on the variety, since there are vigorous and very compact varieties of fuchsia. On average, the length of the fuchsia stalk can be 10-20 cm. Before putting the fuchsia stalk into a container of water, you must remove all the lower leaves that may come into contact with water. Touching the water, the leaves of fuchsia can begin to rot, the infection spreads quickly and the fuchsia cuttings can decay, before they can take root.
You can also shorten the remaining leaves by half if they are too large, since excessive evaporation of moisture through large leaves can weaken the fuchsia stalk, which does not yet have its own roots. If nevertheless the leaves of the fuchsia stalk have lost turgor, put the glass with the stalk in a greenhouse or simply cover it with a transparent bag. Water is suitable ordinary filtered. It does not make sense to use special hormones for rooting fuchsia, since fuchsia cuttings are already willing and quick enough to take root.
It happens that already on the fourth day after the cut of the fuchsia stalk, the first roots appear. On average, the root formation process in fuchsia takes 10-14 days. It is not necessary to wait for the fuchsia stalk to grow long roots. You can plant fuchsia in the substrate as soon as several young roots appear on the cuttings.
Fuchsia can be propagated by cuttings at any time of the year, but it is best in the spring, when all living things begin to grow. Since fuchsia loves coolness, in the summer, due to the high air temperature, the propagation of fuchsia is difficult - the cuttings often rot, before they can take root. It is possible to solve the problem of propagation of fuchsia in the summer if the cuttings are in an air-conditioned room. Also, you may encounter a problem when propagating fuchsia in the fall. The fact is that fuchsia has a rest period, which lasts from mid-October to the end of January. During this period, all vital processes in fuchsia slow down.
The second way to propagate fuchsia by cuttings. Freshly cut fuchsia cuttings are immediately planted in a substrate (this can be a peat tablet, and vermiculite, perlite, sphagnum). The disadvantage of this method is that fuchsia cuttings planted without roots must be placed in a greenhouse, since fuchsia leaves will necessarily lose turgor. But fuchsias very quickly get used to the greenhouse, that is, to high humidity. When the time comes, the rooted cuttings should be removed from the greenhouse, and it will take some time to adapt them to normal air humidity. Unadapted fuchsia cuttings can lose some turgor during a sharp change in climate.
Fuchsia seed propagation
This difficult, but undoubtedly the most interesting method of propagating fuchsia makes sense to use only for breeding purposes.
The flower of the mother plant of fuchsia must be protected from possible self-pollination. It is also important to exclude the possibility of pollination of the flower of fuchsia by insects. Therefore, in a freshly blossomed, and even better in a still not blossoming flower, anthers are carefully and carefully removed. On the stigma of the pestle is applied the pollen of the paternal fuchsia plant. Next, isolate the flower by putting on an insulating bag - this will prevent accidental pollination by insects. The insulating bag can be built from improvised means - paper, fabric, secured around the flower with threads.
Fuchsia fruit ripens for several weeks.
Fuchsia fruit is carefully cut and seeds are extracted. Now they need to be dried. After a day or two, the seeds will dry out and they can be sown. Fuchsia seeds are sown on top of a slightly moistened substrate, without incorporation into the soil. Seed dishes must be placed in a greenhouse, in a well-lit place at room temperature. Shoots of fuchsia seeds will appear in about two weeks. About a month and a half or two seedlings dive, planting them already at a greater distance from each other. After another two months, seedlings can already be planted in separate cups.
Before young fuchsia plants are removed from the greenhouses, they must be gradually accustomed to the usual humidity. Unadapted fuchsia seedlings can be severely damaged and even die if adaptation is neglected.
Varieties and types of fuchsia
A large flowering bush in a container, a shtamb or ampel fuchsia will decorate any veranda, terrace or lawn, it is only important to choose the right variety and place.
The most famous fuchsia in our country is beautiful fuchsia (Fuchsia speciosa), and it is also hybrid (Fuchsia hybrida) - the result of crossing Fuchsia fulgens x Fuchsia splendens (shiny fuchsia fuchsia sparkling).
However, there are several cultivated species, for example, alpine fuchsia Magellanic (Fuchsia Magellanica), its varieties fuchsia elegant (Fuchsia gracilis) and ricarton (Fuchsia magellanica 'Riccartonii') - the ancestors of cold-resistant varieties, as well as heat-loving melanifolia (Fuchsia fucia) , Bolivian (Fuchsia boliviana) and three-leaf fuchsia (Fuchsia triphylla), which gave rise to trifill-hybrids.
All of these species are bushes from 70 cm to 2.5 m tall. Branches can be strong or thin drooping. Depending on their location and strength, the plant will be compact or sprawling.
Among trifill hybrids and varieties of fuchsia hybrid, there are also climbing ones. There are also amazing "weeping" forms with thin long (up to 2 m) shoots, very similar to elegant fuchsia elegant. Among trifill hybrids, this is the ‘Mantilla’ variety.
At fuchsia, the Bolivian bush is decorated with inflorescences - clusters of long-tubular flowers at the ends of long (up to 30 cm) peduncles.
Three-leaf fuchsia flowers densely sit on the ends of shoots. Such plants are planted in hanging baskets and balcony boxes.
Diseases and pests of fuchsia
The most common pest of fuchsia is whitefly.
These are small (up to 2 mm) flies of white color. They got their generic name because both pairs of wings are covered with white pollen. Outwardly similar to a microscopic mole. Large colonies of these insects, adults and larvae live on the lower surface of the leaf. They are easy to notice, because when you shake the leaves of the plant, the flies massively take off.
The larva has 4 ages. In the first she is mobile, with legs and antennae. Her task is to find a suitable place for attachment on the sheet.
At subsequent ages, the larva is already motionless: it firmly “sticks” to the leaf and sucks the juice through a stylet immersed in the tissue. During this period, the larva resembles a transparent flat scale.
During mass reproduction, such scale larvae completely cover the leaves. The consequence of this lesion is yellowing of the leaves, chopping of flowers, drying out of the shoots. Like other sucking insects, whiteflies secrete a sweet pad, on which sooty mushrooms develop. Still whitefly is dangerous as a carrier of viruses - pathogens of plants.
At the fourth age, the larva turns into a chrysalis. It changes greatly, becomes convex, opaque, covered with wax discharge on top.
After molting, the pupa turns into an adult insect.
There are several types of whiteflies: citrus, greenhouse, tobacco.
Citrus whitefly harms subtropical trees and shrubs in the south of the Krasnodar Territory and in greenhouses.
Greenhouse whitefly is a species of tropical origin. In the open field does not overwinter. But in greenhouses it harms all year round. It gives 5-7 generations per year.
Tobacco (or cotton) - externally does not differ from the greenhouse, but has some developmental features. It is highly resistant to pesticides.
Good results are obtained by a 3-4-time single-spill of all plants with the Aktara preparation (4 g of the preparation per 5 liters of water)
Plant juice becomes deadly for pests. Multiple treatment is necessary because only those stages of the pest that feed on the plant sap die after treatment.
It is better to alternate treatments with Aktara and Confidor. Since the use of only one drug can contribute to the emergence of a sustainable generation of the pest.
The washing of plants with a soap solution also complements insecticides well. This solution should be left on the plant for about 1 hour, and then rinse the plant with lukewarm water by hand washing the larvae on the underside of the leaves.
To reduce the number of adults, you can use yellow glue strips-traps, where insects get, being disturbed by shaking the foliage. But only the use of insecticides gives a guaranteed result.
Red spider mite
This is a very small arthropod insect (0.25-0.4 mm) reddish, found on the underside of leaves.
The tick sucks the juices from the plant. The surface of the leaves is first covered with individual faint dots, gradually the area of damage increases, the spots merge, the leaves turn yellow and die. A barely noticeable white web sometimes appears under the leaves. Very often, the tick activates in dry conditions at a high temperature of the plant.
- To process (spray) a plant with Agravertin, Fitoverm, Confidor preparations.
- Remove affected leaves.
Prevention: Frequent spraying of fuchsia with warm water.
Fuchsia loves abundant and regular watering, but sometimes from excessive overmoistening in fuchsia, fungal root decay occurs.The following symptoms indicate this: the leaves become lethargic and lose their luster, despite the wet ground. Plant dies quickly
- Unfortunately, the plant most often cannot be saved, either by watering regulation or by transplanting. Even cuttings from such plants, as a rule, no longer take root.