Priceless backache - species, varieties, cultivation
For collecting, gardeners just as often choose lumbago as roses, tulips or crocuses. And there is nothing surprising in this. After all, touching plants, protected by a thick, velvety fringe, even on stipules, have amazing beauty. Once appearing in the garden, they forever captivate hearts and become the main stars of the first half of the season in any composition. It is far from easy to grow backache, because these plants cannot tolerate transplants and need specific conditions. But small difficulties more than pay off with the unique beauty of the flowering of these spring stars.
Backache, or Pulsatilla (Pulsatilla) Is a previously separate genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the Ranunculaceae family (Ranunculaceae) According to modern classification, the species of the former genus Pulsatilla are included in the genus Anemone, or Anemone (Anemone).
Touching accents with special status
Lovingly calling lumbago sleep grass, gardeners all over the world cannot resist growing this amazing plant. Backache - one of the most striking garden crops with spring flowering, touching and hardy at the same time.
Backache - small grassy perennials. Lumbago range in height from tiny 5 cm to almost 40 cm, but at the same time, modest sizes do not prevent them from remaining bright and catchy plants. The shoots have even rhizomes that are special: vertical or growing obliquely, long, rooted and deeply lying powerful roots unusually large for such a small plant.
The shoots of the lumbago are always straight, crowned with a flower, accentuated by narrowly dissected leaves fused into the bedspread, repeating the shape of the basal foliage. Greenery of dream grass cannot be called outstanding, but jackets of carved leaves will adorn the compositions until late fall. Basal leaves in a compact, not always dense rosette sit on fairly long petioles. They are palmate or cirrus dissected, densely pubescent. A distinctive feature of lumbago is elongation, extension of shoots after flowering, at the stage of fruit formation.
The pride of all types of dream grass is large flowers, which are by far the most decorative part of the plant. In most cases, they bloom to leaves, although in some lumbago the greens and peduncles develop simultaneously. In dream grass, the flowers are always large, they seem simply huge against the background of modest greenery. Large bells of beautiful shape reach 8 m in diameter. Not always opening completely, they open one at a time, crown the flower stalks, sometimes bend slightly or droop.
A thick “bunch” of pistils and stamens adorn the center of the flowers with a magnificent “eye”, which seems especially bright in spring, but the main feature of large flowers is the dense pubescence on the outside of the petals, repeating, and sometimes even exceeding the margin of leaves and shoots. Lumbago seeds ripen a month or 6 weeks after flowering. They hide in a very beautiful polyhedra with long fluffy columns. Fruits look no less impressive than flowers.
Timing of lumbago bloom allows you to collect a collection of successive flowering perennials. After all, some lumbago bloom in April, others in May, and some enter the flowering phase only in the summer. The continuous relay race of flowering dream grass from mid-spring to August is a sight that will not leave any spectator indifferent.
Despite its healing properties, sleep grass is a poisonous plant and its careless use, as well as handling the plant during transplantation without special skin protection, can cause various irritations and allergic reactions.
Types and varieties of lumbago
Most plants belonging to the genus of lumbago are extremely valuable plants protected by the Red Book. And in the wild they can not only be dug up, but also pick flowers. Digging lumbago - a pointless exercise, because these plants do not reproduce vegetatively. And to decide on illegal actions that entail administrative and criminal liability, in the case of backache, means only one thing - the extermination of priceless endemic materials with your own hands.
Of the 40 natural species of lumbago, prevalent mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and in cold climates, only a little more than 15 species are used in decorative gardening. At the same time, it is not easy to understand the classification of lumbago: according to modern botanical data, lumbago is considered as part, a section of the anemone genus.
And most plants known to us as lumbago have another name: just replace the generic Pulsatilla with Anemone, and you will get the most modern variation of the name. But such subtleties do not negate the main thing: for all the similarities in details, any gardener will distinguish a cross from ordinary garden anemones. After all, these plants are special both in their pubescence and in character. Yes, and lumbago spread under the "old" names.
Let's get acquainted with the best garden shoots, the seeds of which can be found on sale, closer.
Lumbago ordinary (pulsatilla vulgaris) - the most diverse type of sleep grass in terms of varieties and forms. Shoots grow only up to 20 cm in height, crowned with single, bell-shaped flowers blooming to leaves with beautiful pointed petals. The leaves are dissected into narrow, threadlike lobes, while the greenery repents very thick. The best forms of this cross include:
- dark red atrosanguinea with red drooping flowers and very beautiful, thin foliage;
- the shape of grandis with very large, about 8 cm in diameter flowers;
- a variety of amoena with red-violet, dark and very large flowers;
The common prostyle also has numerous varieties with a wide variety of colors - from white to lilac, lilac, pink, red, purple. Deserve special attention:
- red tulip variety “Rote Glocke”;
- snow-white with dissected petals, large-flowered variety “Papageno” (Papageno);
- bright purple and similar to the previous one in the form of ‘Papageno Black’;
- pale pink variety ‘Mrs van der Elst’.
Bright and catchy open chamber (pulsatilla patens) - the main competitor of the lumbago ordinary. This plant is very plastic and in height (from 7 to 50 cm), and in color of flowers. The leaves are palmate, collected in whorls, appear only after flowering and subdue the heart-shaped form of lobes.
The flowers are really very large, up to 8 cm in diameter, with white, bright purple or blue-violet color. The usual form of a wide bell at the beginning then changes to a star-shaped open cup. And the direct arrangement of the flower looking up allows you to admire the details. A distinctive feature of the blooming flower in April-May is the ability to produce up to 50 flowers on one bush. Fruits are unusual, burrow, literally screwed into the soil, reacting to moisture.
Occurs in nature in Russia lumbago spring (pulsatilla vernalis) Loved by many gardeners. This touching, radiant plant is in many ways one of the most tender spring accents. Reaching a height of 30 cm, this handsome man stands out not only with slightly curved, but not straight shoots.
His leathery basal leaves bloom to flowers, and the four-centimeter, fully expanding calyx-bell-shaped cups with a snow-white pearl inner color and lilac outer color seem like sparkling stars against a dark green background. Spring lumbago blooms in mid-May and delights with flowers for longer than 3 weeks, but when grown from seeds, it will bloom only for 5-8 years.
Backache yellowing (pulsatilla flavescens) - a magnificent large plant with a lush rosette of basal leaves reaching a height of 30 cm. True, luxurious carved foliage appears already after peduncles, also impressive for its half-meter height. Erect graceful bells with lemon yellow color reach 6 cm in diameter.
The whole plant is covered with a very beautiful silver edge, especially thick on the buds. The outwardly cross-section (pulsatilla multifida) is very similar to it, in which only the color of the flowers differs - in this dream grass it is bright purple.
The color of its flowers - blue, ultramarine-saturated - a rare species stands out lumbar dubious (pulsatilla ambigua) Spread, elegant bells up to 2 cm in length, albeit small, but very beautiful, droop in buds and gradually rise, opening. The basal rosette is lush, the leaves are large, dissected, form a rosette with a diameter of up to 30 cm, perfectly emphasizing the 40-45-centimeter peduncles appearing at the end of April.
No less charming baby up to 30 cm in height - Haller's backache (pulsatilla halleri), we have a better known name lumbago Crimean (pulsatilla taurica) It blooms for about 1 month in April-May, is distinguished by shaggy peduncles, bright lilac flowers with a lush yellow center, looking up tall, up to 10-15 cm basal bright leaves.
Joyful and sunny lumbago golden (pulsatilla aurea) always looks larger than its size. Reaching a height of 35 cm, it stands out with bright, densely dissected leaves, a surprisingly magnificent edge and long petioles. But surprisingly bright and dense greens are just a beautiful background for flowers reaching up to 6 cm in diameter, with wide petals and a bright golden color.
Golden lumbago blooms only in June, as if announcing the arrival of summer heat. At the same time, greens and flowers open simultaneously.
Backbone Ayansky (pulsatilla ajanensis) boasts more lush foliage than its dwarf competitors. In a plant with a vertical root with a modest height of 5 to a little more than 10 cm, radical pinnate, often ternate leaves, somewhat reminiscent of celery and parsley, sit on long and almost hairy petioles.
Peduncles with a thick edge are decorated with narrow-lanceolate leaves of the bedspread and large flowers reaching 5-6 cm in diameter, which are not fully revealed. The violet color, the egg-shaped shape of the petals and the red outer edge make this cross one of the most interesting and "wild" in appearance.
If you are looking for an expressive plant for natural design, pay attention to lumbago Turchaninova (pulsatilla turczaninovii), the bright and narrowly dissected foliage of which blooms simultaneously with half-open, blue-violet flowers, as if floating in the air.
One of the most original representatives of dream grass, of course, is lumbago bell (pulsatilla campanella) Outwardly, he really seems close to ordinary bells: his flowers are narrow, elongated, looking down or slightly inclined. Reaching only 2.5 cm in diameter, they seem very spectacular thanks to the elegant shape and light, lilac-blue color. This special lumbago blooms in April-May. His greens are quite bright, with a deep dissection, on long stalks.
Drooping flowers on curving flower-shaped stalks are characteristic for lumbago (pulsatilla pratensis) The muted lilac color with interesting watercolor shades, the cirrus-cut silver leaves appearing after blooming and the seeming velvet edge make it very moving. The form of nigricans with ink-purple flowers is most popular with this species.
One of the lowest shots - lumbago Magadan (pulsatilla magadanensis) with a rosette of leaves up to 5 cm in height and ten-centimeter peduncles with large, pubescent bell-shaped flowers of a bluish-white color.
Beautiful and large rosette of leaves forms and lumbago Tarao (pulsatilla taraoi) Bright green, densely dissected and collected in whorls leaves in rosettes up to 25 cm in diameter emphasize unusual flowers with narrow, up to 2 mm wide, petals of an obscure-brown color. This is the most exotic looking cross.
If you like unusual plants, then you should look for seeds. lumbago tatevaki (pulsatilla tatewakii) The baby up to 20 cm high is distinguished by delicate, lilac-like flowers with bright lilac stamens resembling a skirt, above which, like a crown, a leaf cover covers. This lumbago blooms before the leaves bloom in April-May.
The last two lumbago - alpine species, inferior in distribution to the two favorites of mountain lumbago, which include:
- Backache Alpine (pulsatilla alpina) - a modest perennial with cream, white or yellow quivering flowers, blooming from May to August. It differs from the other lumbago by the less symmetry of the flower, the greater variability of the shape of the petals. In height, the leaves are limited to 10 cm, shoots - 20 cm.
- Backache mountain (pulsatilla montana) also, like alpine, belongs to the alpine species. It blooms in early May, over the course of a month, delighting the eyes with densely pubescent dark purple drooping bells and velvety cirrus-dissected basal leaves. In height, the view is limited to 20 cm.
Backache can surprise any gardener with another indispensable quality - variability. This plant can easily hybridize, and new species and varieties may arise already in your area. If you grow several types of lumbago, then most likely there will be cross-pollination, and in addition to your pets, specimens completely unexpected in color and shape of flowers will also come from the seeds. Therefore, lumbago is so well suited for collecting: the more plants you collect, the more they will surprise you.
Dream grass in landscape design is used:
- as one of the most spectacular plants for rock gardens and rockeries;
- to decorate groups of shrubs and trees along the front edge;
- as accents in the fringe of wood;
- collection groups in an open area, lawn, meadow with groundcover;
- in flower beds with mulched stone crumb soil and mixborders with dumping;
- in the role of piece decoration in boulders, groups of stones, stairs;
- as an emphasis on terraced areas, slopes, supporting walls;
- for seasonal spring spots and borders, islet flower beds.
The best partners for lumbago in the garden: primrose, scyllus, crocus
Conditions necessary for lumbago
Backache to grow is not easy. Different species of this plant are accustomed to excellent living conditions, but at the same time retain the ability to adapt well to their changes. All lumbago have common minimum requirements for growing conditions, which should not be violated.
Sleep grass will develop only under the condition of good enough, but not the brightest lighting. Light shading, unstable penumbra or a sunny area are equally suitable for garden shoots, but usually the most spectacular leaf rosettes and the largest flowers shoot through a light shade that mimics pine forests and mountainous areas.
All lumbago, without exception, feel better on the slopes, and not on flat, flat areas. Especially suitable for them are places with a slope to the south, artificial elevations, such as alpine slides. Choose places for lumbago in which water, even with prolonged precipitation, will drain without obstacles, not lingering in the soil.
Soil is almost any suitable for dream grass, with the exception of moist locations.Backbones bloom most spectacularly on fertile, slightly moist soils with good water permeability. Draining is vital for lumbago, because they can not stand zamokaniya. But other parameters should be given a lot of attention. After all, backache will effectively bloom only on nutritious, organic-containing soils that have been well-treated before planting. Spring lumbago prefers acidic soil, all the rest - at least slightly calcareous.
Before planting a lumbago, it is necessary to improve the soil. Organic fertilizers are introduced into it - compost, humus, and also a little nitrogen fertilizers (for example, urea). Then carry out a thorough digging. Since the dream grass has very deep, rooted roots, processing must be carried out to a greater depth. For all lumbago, except for spring, lime should be added to the soil or at least slightly alkaline soil should be selected.
Carry plants from seedling ridges in early spring. But seedlings can be planted in a permanent place from May to the end of summer (but early planting also gives the best results).
When planting a plant, it is necessary to completely maintain an earthen lump, try to minimize contact with the plant. It is critically important to provide lumbago thorough care: during the first month, or better before the onset of active development, lumbago must be actively watered (but without excessive moisture).
Lumbago is very poorly tolerated transplant. Plants older than 10 years, most likely will not survive the change of location. But then the backache does not need divisions, a constant change in the place of cultivation. If breeding or transplantation is necessary, the backache will be dug up with a large lump of earth, keeping it completely during the procedure.
Difficulties of growing a lumbago are surprisingly combined with ease of care. This plant does not require any special care, I adapt perfectly to weather vagaries.
Backache will need watering only during drought, when the air temperature exceeds normal. On dry, hot days, they gratefully respond to watering, but they will not need systemic sleep-grass procedures. And the plant will survive the drought, but in this case you can’t count on spectacular and abundant flowering.
Top dressing for lumbago growing in any soil is very important for flowering and aging of flower buds. Organics are introduced not only during planting, but also in autumn as mulch, providing an annual portion of humus and natural top dressing. But it is recommended to add mineral mixtures during the summer using the strategy of monthly top dressing (2-3 times is enough - in May, June and on meager soil as in July). As fertilizers for sleep grass, only potassium and phosphorus preparations are used, without nitrogen.
Special preparation for the winter is needed only by young lumbago. Before the onset of the first frosts, it is advisable to cover them with dry foliage or spruce branches in late autumn. Shelter must be carried out for young seedlings sown in the current year. In the second year, lumbago is sheltered only on condition of a snowless winter. An adult sleep-grass winters perfectly without any shelter, provided that the soil is correctly selected and there is no risk of waterlogging during thaws.
Pest and disease control
The important advantages of lumbago include resistance to pests and diseases. Nature generously protected this plant from enemies and adverse factors by protective mechanisms, and with the right choice of growing conditions, sleep-grass will not hurt even with poor care.
Despite the status of a perennial plant, the main method of propagation of the lumbago is the seed method, which is typical for pilots. The thing is that lumbago is very poorly transplanted, it is impossible in the adult state to divide and get new plants by vegetative methods.
This has its own plus: the low productivity of excavation allows lumbago to better maintain representation in the wild, because digging this plant from natural habitats simply does not make sense. Lumbago blooms not earlier than in the second year after sowing, and some species (all alpine and spring lumbago) only after 7 years.
The sowing strategy largely depends on the main characteristic of lumbago: plants that do not tolerate absolutely no transplants, even at a young age, are best sown directly at the place of cultivation or, in extreme cases, on ridges carried at one year old with a large lump of land (relocation can be done in early spring).
The timing of sowing seeds can also be different. The most effective is sowing immediately after the seeds are collected from the plant in June-July. But young seedlings will require more complex care in the hot summer, they will need to be shaded and often watered. Therefore, many gardeners choose different dates and sow the seeds collected last year in the spring into well-warmed soil.
Winter crops for ordinary shoots are not effective. And only alpine lumbago (alpine, mountain, Tatevaki and Tarao) prefer autumn sowing and stratification, but it is better to focus on the information of the seed supplier.
Sowing in the soil is carried out according to standard techniques. Seeds are scattered in small grooves with a depth of about 1 cm with a distance of about 20 cm between rows. Crops should be dense, and the soil should be light. Before germination, lumbago provides easy irrigation without waterlogging, maintaining constant soil moisture. Mulching with straw or hay will help stabilize the conditions.
Growing seedlings involves sowing shoots in April. The seeds are not buried, but only pressed into the substrate and moistened from above with a spray gun. From above crops need to be covered with a film or glass. Lumbago seeds can germinate only in the light and at a temperature of about 24-27 degrees Celsius.
Seedlings appear unevenly, not all seeds have a process of self-dropping the shell and sometimes they need to be soaked with warm water for germination. Pickering is carried out in individual peat pots in a phase of 2-3 real leaves. Backache is carried into the soil with them in May or later.
Regardless of the method of cultivation, lumbago will show their decorative effect in full only 3-4 years after sowing, although not mountain species will bloom in the second year.