What is missing cucumbers?
Everyone usually has cucumbers in the garden; they grow well, it seems as if by themselves. However, it sometimes happens that cucumbers sometimes become somehow different - not crispy, curved, have a color unusual for the variety, suddenly soften or develop very slowly. Let’s talk today about the reasons why unwanted changes are taking place with cucumbers, what are they really missing and how to fix the situation?
- Essential Nutrition for Cucumber
- Save cucumbers from nutrient deficiencies
- Some features of feeding cucumbers
Essential Nutrition for Cucumber
Cucumbers need all, without exception, nutrients, except that chlorine does not tolerate cucumber, so chlorine-containing fertilizers should not be applied under it, nor should cucumbers be grown on soils with an excess of this element.
Nitrogen is the component that is required literally by all plants and, of course, cucumber. Thanks to nitrogen, plants grow rapidly, increase their vegetative mass, which is why it is best if nitrogen is already in the ground at an early stage of cucumber development. Thanks to it, the aboveground mass is formed, which is necessary for complete photosynthesis.
It is perfectly permissible to arrange nitrogen dressings for cucumbers literally a couple of days after transplanting seedlings to the site, and then repeat the application a week after they are justified in a new place. What doses? Literally at the tip of a teaspoon of urea in the hole when planting, well mixed with moist soil. A week after planting, dissolve a teaspoon of urea in a bucket of water and pour a square meter of the area with this amount.
But to bring in an excessive amount of nitrogen - that is, a third top dressing, a fourth and so on is not worth doing, this will have an extremely negative effect on the cucumber plants, they will simply live on, increasing and increasing the volume of vegetative mass to the detriment of the crop. You can find out that it is enough for a cucumber plant to already consume nitrogen by changing its leaves - they will turn dark green. What can be done? If it is dry, then water the cucumber plants every day, trying to wash the nitrogen into deeper and not accessible layers of the soil for its root system.
Do not forget that nitrogen can be deposited in the fruits of the cucumber, therefore, as soon as the first ovaries appear, it is better to stop feeding the cucumbers with nitrogen at all.
But in addition to excess nitrogen, there may be a lack of nitrogen in the soil, as the plant signals a decrease in growth activity, a decrease in leaf size, a change in leaf color from normal to light green or even light yellow, a sharp decrease in the number of cucumber ovaries on the plant, and if if the fruits develop from the ovaries, they will be very small, ugly.
Naturally, if you notice something similar on cucumbers, then you must definitely apply fertilizers containing nitrogen either under the root (after loosening the soil, pour 5-7 g of urea dissolved in water under each plant) or spray the plants (the same amount but on a bucket of water, after top-dressing), so that as soon as possible nutrients enter the tissues of plants.
Phosphorus is an important element on our planet, it is needed by many plants, including vegetable crops, including cucumber. In this plant, this element is responsible for the growth and development of roots: if there is little phosphorus in the soil, the root system will not develop well and will not be able to absorb other useful elements from the soil, and this will cause loss of plant immunity and lead to its depletion.
The main thing is to know that phosphorus will not interfere at any stage of cucumber development, therefore, it is even placed in the holes when planting cucumber seedlings, pre-mixed with soil and moistened with soil (half a teaspoon of phosphorus). Phosphorus is important and necessary for cucumbers during the period of mass flowering and during the formation of the ovary - in these periods important for the cucumber, it is quite possible to use superphosphate, spending 8-12 g per square meter of plantation.
A deficiency of phosphorus will cause the leaves of the cucumbers to change color to bluish or even scarlet, the new leaves will be much smaller than the old ones, shoot growth will practically stop, the number of ovaries will decrease, the ripening processes will slow down. There is an urgent need to carry out foliar top dressing, first dissolve a teaspoon of superphosphate in boiling water (a little boiling water), then in a bucket of water, fill the spray bottle and thoroughly treat the plants.
An interesting fact that not many know about: cucumbers rarely suffer from a deficiency of phosphorus in normal soil, they can experience a deficiency of this element on soils that are excessively poor and with an increased level of acidity.
But what happens to cucumbers with an excess of phosphorus: acceleration of growth of side shoots begins with their simultaneous exposure, the leaves become light yellow, sometimes even necrotic spots can be seen on them, and if there is also a moisture deficit, the plants begin to lose turgor and wither. Salvation at the same time - active irrigation.
Do not forget that an excessive amount of phosphorus can not be solved - adding too much of it, thereby blocking the ability to consume potassium by plants, which is no less dangerous. Here you need to be careful.
By the way, about potassium: thanks to this element, nutrients freely flow from the root system to fruits and leaves, and this brings the harvesting period closer. Given this, in order for potassium to turn into forms available for cucumber plants, it should be applied in advance, per month (a teaspoon of potassium sulfate per 1m2), and then added again after a week (potassium sulfate in the amount of 12 g per 10 l of water per 1 m2) Gardeners argue that the normal existence of a cucumber without potassium simply can not be.
If there is enough potassium in the soil, then cucumbers are usually crispy, tasty, juicy, and the culture itself has increased immunity.
If there is little potassium in the soil, then the leaves darken, the lashes become excessively long, a minimum of ovary forms, a yellowish border may appear on the leaves, and cucumbers will certainly be bitter. An urgent foliar top dressing will help - we dissolve 16 g of potassium sulfate in a bucket of water and spray the plants until the symptoms of potassium starvation disappear completely.
But an excess of potassium does not bode well - the leaves turn pale, the plants slow down their growth, the distance between the nodes lengthens, and a kind of mosaic may appear on the surface of the leaf. Excess potassium, as it does not seem strange, can cause premature decay of cucumber leaves.
An excess of potassium is so negatively reflected in the cucumber because it inhibits the influx into the plants of another important element - nitrogen, and its lack, in turn, causes a hinder in the growth and development of the cucumber. To avoid this, you can try to treat the plants with ammonium nitrate, dilute 12 g in 10 liters of water by spraying the plants.
But not only nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are important for cucumber, trace elements also play a role, and sometimes considerable.
For example, with a lack of boron, a yellow fringe appears on the leaves of the cucumber, the flowers, as well as the ovaries, are trivial, and light chlorotic stripes appear on the fruits that have formed. Often, with a lack of boron, the fruits are strongly bent, but with an excess of it, the edges of the leaves begin to dry out actively, curl up and become like a canopy of a parachute.
The first signs of magnesium deficiency affect the cucumber in the form of an unevenly colored sheet: on it you can see foci of both normal color and completely chlorotic. Excess magnesium also does not bode well - the leaves are very dark and curl up.
Manganese deficiency appears if the veins and leaves of cucumbers bulge and turn dark green, and the leaf itself appears chlorotic. Excess manganese is also a problem, leaf veins turn red, and the space between them is covered with brown spots. If there is a lot of manganese, then the plant is poisoned and can die very quickly.
Calcium is also an important element for cucumber; calcium deficiency in cucumber can be noticed by a dry, yellowish border around the edge of the leaf. The most interesting thing is that against this background the sheet itself can be almost completely white, devoid of turgor and curled up.
With a large amount of calcium, chlorosis begins, which manifests itself in the form of clearly visible, rounded spots on the leaves. This is due to the fact that the cucumber becomes unable to absorb manganese and boron.
Save cucumbers from nutrient deficiencies
As a preventive measure, about once a month, you can add wood ash under cucumbers - 200 g per 1 m2, in it up to 5% of potash and trace elements well digested by plants.
Boric acid well compensates for the lack of boron, it is best to process cucumbers during the flowering period, thereby increasing the fruit setting too. Boron is not enough - ordinary boric acid is not more than 0.2 g per liter of water, and plants need to be sprayed with this quantity from the sprayer as thoroughly as possible.
It is possible to enrich cucumbers with magnesium by kalimagnesia - make it permissible twice a season - a couple of weeks after transplanting and again a month after the first application. Enough 10-12 g of Kalimagnesia per square meter of soil.
As a substitute for kalimagnesia, it is quite possible to use dolomite flour or wood soot, they need both of them in an amount of 50 g per square meter of soil for cucumbers
If you wondered where to get manganese, then there is a solution - take and dilute a weak, literally light pinkish solution of ordinary potassium permanganate.
Calcium - it can be introduced into the soil by enriching the latter with calcium carbonate, only 0.5 g per square meter of land is needed. By the way, ordinary chalk, dolomite flour or wood ash is rich in this element.
A lot of calcium and in the eggshell. The main thing is that calcium is really preserved there, the eggs do not need to be boiled, they should be broken, the shell must be taken and crushed on a coffee grinder to a powder state - the finer the better. Here in this form, you can make it, spending half a teaspoon per square meter of soil. By the way, you can put half a teaspoon of shell in a hole when planting seedlings and pour another teaspoon in a week in a previously loosened soil.
Some features of feeding cucumbers
During the flowering period, boric acid treatment - spraying is appropriate. You need 0.2 g of boric acid in a bucket of water and thoroughly spray all the flowers with this solution. After a couple of days after this, add potassium sulfate dissolved in water in the amount of a teaspoon per square meter and superphosphate in the same volume, previously dissolved in boiling water.
As for nitroammophos, many gardeners bring it all season literally at the tip of a teaspoon, they dissolve it in water and spray this composition of the plant in the evening all season, nothing bad usually happens.
It is important to carry out three or four compulsory feeding of cucumbers per season, more is possible, but there is no urgent need for this. It is better to water the plants more often, loosen the soil and fight weeds.
Conclusion Like all living things, cucumbers need nutrition, moreover balanced and preferably varied. Do not stuff the cucumbers with the same fertilizers, do not use large doses of nitrogen fertilizers, try to use more natural fertilizers - for example, weeds, wood ash, soot fermented for a couple of days, and then your crops will be high and, most importantly, useful!