Schisandra chinensis in questions and answers
Where does lemongrass grow under natural conditions?
Of the 14 species of lemongrass in the countries of the former USSR, only Chinese schizandra is common, which grows in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories, on the islands of the Kuril ridge and Sakhalin. It prefers valley and mountain sparse coniferous-deciduous forests, deins resulting from felling, fires and windbreaks. The most favorable gentle slopes of lowlands. In shady forests are rare.
What beneficial substances are contained in the fruits of lemongrass?
Fruits are rich in biologically active substances. Dry fruits contain sugar - up to 16%, organic acids (citric, malic, succinic, tartaric, etc.) - 10, tannins - 3, pectins - 0.15% and dyes; in freshly picked: sugars - 2%, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) - 70 mg%, and also contains citrine (vitamin P), sterols and carotenoids, essential oil, etc. Fat is present in the seeds - 47%, essential oil - 3 % Tocopherol (Vitamin E) is found in fatty seed oil - 30 mg%. There are many macro- and microelements in juice and seeds, especially silver and molybdenum. The active substances of schisandra - schizandrin, schizandron and several other compounds of a rather complex composition (found in seeds).
What is the dietary and therapeutic value of lemongrass fruits?
You can eat fresh and dried fruits, as well as tinctures from seeds and fruits, powder from seeds. In the Far East, lemongrass fruits have long been used as a tonic, as well as for the treatment of many diseases: colds, frostbite, sexual impotence, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal disorders, etc. Schisandra fruits and preparations have an exciting effect on the central nervous system, stimulate cardiovascular activity and breathing, increase efficiency, relieve fatigue during physical and mental stress, drowsiness, exhaustion of the nervous system, neurasthenia, depressive states, etc. They contribute to increased blood pressure, exacerbated night vision. Contraindicated in hypertension, epilepsy, gastric ulcer and gastritis. Susceptibility to lemongrass is not the same, therefore it should be consumed in consultation with a doctor.
What can be used besides fruits and seeds?
As a taste, stimulating and tonic, you can use the stems, leaves, roots and bark of lemongrass. In addition, the ascorbic acid in the leaves is five times greater than in the fruits. Leaves and bark exude a lemon smell, especially if you rub them in your hand. From whole organs or powder from them it is recommended to make tea, decoctions, tinctures that have a pleasant color, delicate aroma and have a tonic and thirst-quenching effect.
How to use lemongrass fruits?
Basically, the fruits are processed for use for therapeutic purposes. At the same time, crushing and crushing of seeds should be avoided, since as a result the products acquire a bitter burning taste. Dry fruits are widely used in cooking. The fruits are well preserved.
What are the biological characteristics of lemongrass?
This is a woody vine up to 18 m long, 2.5 cm in diameter. It supports itself in an upright position, relying on other plants and supports. Shoots twist support in a spiral. The bark is dark brown, smooth and shiny on young shoots, peeling on old shoots. Lianas and their shoots are elastic, soft, do not break when bent, they are always directed upwards. The kidneys are elongated ovoid, acute, 3-4 mm long, assembled three in a knot. The middle, most developed kidney starts moving, the two lateral ones remain dormant. Leaves are light green, alternate with a wedge-shaped base, petioles are pink. Flowers are unisexual, 1.5 cm in diameter, waxy, white, on long drooping pedicels, two to four on short shoots. They have a subtle smell. Male flowers have white stamens, fused so that only anthers open with a longitudinal gap remain free. In women, the pestle is greenish with numerous carpels located on a cylindrical receptacle. Male flowers bloom two to three days earlier than female flowers. They do not lose their petals after flowering, but fall off along with the peduncle. Female - lose their petals as they fertilize and at the beginning of the development of the ovary.
How is the qualitative composition of female and male flowers formed on monoecious plants?
Young Schisandra plants entering the fruiting period form mainly male flowers, female flowers as they grow. In an adult lemongrass, flowers are arranged in tiers: in the lower part - mainly male, in the middle - male and female from one mixed bud, in the upper - female. The presence of flowers of one sex or another is not a stable sign, it depends on age and environmental factors such as lighting, nutritional conditions, temperature conditions and soil moisture. Flower buds are laid on the shoots of previous years. Lemongrass blooms in June for 8-12 days.
What are the features of the formation and development of the fruit?
After fertilization, the ovary gradually increases and lengthens, a brush is drawn from one flower - an elongated receptacle with a peduncle and fruits. The latter are green at first, then increase in size, turn white, turn brown and become more and more “isolated”. By the time of ripening, the brush increases 25-50 times. The fruits turn carmine red. The fruit is a juicy multi-leaf, cylindrical multi-berries with an elongated receptacle (8-10 cm), on which there are about 40 spherical leaflets (fruits) with a diameter of 5-10 mm. The average mass of the fruit is 0.45 g, the brush is 1.37-14.67 g. Ripened fruits do not fall, but hang until frost.
Are there lemongrass plants dioecious (separately female and male)?
Yes. This biological feature is fixed in the offspring only during vegetative propagation. With seed, as a rule, three types of plants are obtained: male, female and monoecious. The first two annually confirm their dioeciousness: either female or male. Monoecious plants have an unstable ratio of female and male flowers, in one year there may be both, in the next - most or all of the women. This phenomenon does not contribute to the annual guaranteed yield if only monoecious plants are planted on the site. Therefore, along with monoecious, dioecious plants need to be planted.
Why sometimes lemongrass blooms annually, but there is no harvest?
It is possible that only female or only male plants grow on the site, and they do not tie on the female fruits because there are no male plants nearby. Schisandra flowers are pollinated by insects.
What are the requirements of lemongrass to growing conditions in the garden?
In natural conditions, lemongrass is demanding on light, high atmospheric humidity and soil fertility. When diluted on a plot, it must be placed in an open area (in shading it grows slowly and weakly bears fruit). The soil should be fertile, well-drained, with a light mechanical composition. It responds well to organic and mineral fertilizers, watering. On dense clay, peaty or sandy soil, the growth and development of lemongrass slows down - such soil should be improved. Schizandra does not grow in wetlands, does not withstand flooding by flood waters.
Are there varieties of lemongrass?
No varieties yet. There are selected forms and samples characterized by productivity, elongation and compactness of the hand, large fruits, good content of Sugars, vitamins and other biologically active substances.
What are lemongrass seeds?
Seeds are shiny, yellow, bud-shaped, with a thin dense shell (the surface of the latter is finely grooved), 4x3x2 mm in size. Each fruit contains one or two seeds. The average mass of 10OO seeds is 20 g. Schizandra has an extremely developed “empty grain”, sometimes reaching 95%. Empty seeds are devoid of the germ and endosperm, although outwardly no different from normal ones. In normal seeds, the embryo grows and develops during stratification.
What is the seed yield?
The yield of seeds is 6-8% of the yield of fresh fruits. In 1 kg of pure seeds, there are 40-50 thousand seeds. Germination lasts no more than two years.
Is it possible to propagate lemongrass with seeds?
It is possible, but due to the splitting of traits and properties, an exact copy of the mother plant cannot be obtained.
How to prepare seeds in the post-harvest period?
From freshly picked fruits, squeeze the juice, gently rub them through a sieve, rinse and separate from the pulp and skin. Dried seeds should be stored in paper bags until January, then start stratification.
How to stratify seeds?
In January, lemongrass seeds need to be soaked for 4 days and daily change water. After that, wrap them in a nylon cloth and place them in moist calcined coarse sand in a box and keep them in the room for 1 month at a temperature of 18–20 ° С. Periodically (once a week) the seeds need to do air and water baths. To do this, they must be dug up, washed, allowed to dry for 15-20 minutes, wrapped again in a cloth and put in sand. After a month, the box with the seeds should be placed under the snow, and 20-25 days before sowing, pull it out and put it in a warm room with a positive temperature so that the sand thaws and the seeds stick.
How to sow stratified seeds?
In spring, fertile soil well prepared in the fall should be loosened and marked, grooves should be made 1.5–2 cm deep at a distance of 12–15 cm from each other, and the bed should be compacted. Sow the seeds in the grooves after 2 cm from each other, cover up with humus with a layer of 1.5 cm and water. At the same grooves, simultaneously with sowing lemongrass seeds, sow the seeds of a lighthouse culture, characterized by a quick seed emergence. Shoots of the lighthouse culture indicate the rows of lemongrass crops, which will prevent damage to them when leaving.
Is it possible to sow lemongrass seeds in the fall?
Yes. Freshly selected seeds 3-4 days before sowing must be moistened with water, which should be changed daily. Then you need to prepare the ridges, make shallow grooves, tighten the bed, sow the seeds and cover them with a light humus layer of 1.5 cm. The seeds sown in the fall undergo natural stratification in the soil, seedlings appear in the early summer of next year.
How to care for crops, seedlings and seedlings?
Crops should be in partial shade. If the ridges are located in an open place, they need to be covered with trellis shields or stretch gauze. In summer, you should loosen the soil, weed, weed, if necessary, moisten with water. Seeds germinate at the same time, the process lasts 2-2.5 months. First, a sub-cotyledonous knee appears in the form of a loop, it gradually straightens and carries out cotyledonous leaves with a seed coat. After freeing from the shell, the cotyledons straighten, increasing in size. If the seeds are sown often and give good shoots, then with the advent of the third true leaf they can be peaked. In the first year, seedlings grow very slowly (by autumn, the height is 5-6 cm). In the second and especially third year, they develop faster, with good care grow by 0.5 m by autumn. At the sowing place, seedlings must be grown for two or three years, then transplanted to a permanent place.
How else can lemongrass be propagated?
By all means of autonomic root propagation.
Harvested shoots in autumn should be cut into 20 cm cuttings, tied in bunches and placed under snow. In spring, the cuttings (to a height of three quarters) must be put into water (change it daily). Three days later, lignified cuttings should be planted in loose fertile soil (to a depth of three quarters of the cuttings). Care of planting consists in loosening the soil, weeding, watering. Water daily for a month, at the end of which additional roots are formed. At the same time, watering should be reduced: first, carry them out every other day, then once a week. At the rooting site, cuttings should be grown for two years.
Around fruiting plants, especially old ones, many root offspring are formed. Caution at a considerable distance from the plant with a shovel, you need to cut off the rhizome with the subordinate shoot. If there are several shoots, then the pruner must be cut with the pruner according to the number of shoots. Root offspring often do not have their own roots, so they should be planted for growing (for one to two years) or in a permanent place (in the latter case, more thorough care and watering are necessary). All root offspring cannot be dug up: the root system is destroyed and the mother plant dies.
The rhizome should be carefully excavated, cut off with a shovel from the mother plant and removed from the soil. The secateurs need to be cut into cuttings so that each has accessory buds or etiolated shoots that have moved to growth. Rhizome cuttings must be grown in loose fertile soil and watered daily.
This method of reproduction can be applied in June and July. Fresh shoots in the shade should be cut into three-node cuttings, remove the leaf with the petiole from the lower node. During the day, the cuttings must be treated with stimulants (heteroauxin, indolylbutyric acid, etc.). For rooting, cuttings should be planted in a sterile substrate in greenhouses or greenhouses at high humidity. The cuttings take root faster and better where the temperature of the substrate is at least half a degree higher than the air temperature. This is easily achieved with biological heating (rotting manure or organic waste). Excessive watering contributes to the soaking of the roots or poor wintering of rooted cuttings.
Is it possible to propagate lemongrass in room conditions?
Yes. A pot should be placed in a well-lit place, two-thirds should be filled with fertile structural soil, and on top (one-third) with coarse-grained sterile sand. In the last plant a green stalk (the technique for preparing the stalk is described in the previous answer). The aerial part of the handle should be covered with a film or a glass jar. Watering is often necessary, but in small doses, while shelter should not be removed. Water should be at room temperature, it is better to keep it on the windowsill. After two or three weeks, the roots will appear on the handle; during this period, you can remove the jar (film) for the night, constantly increasing the time spent on the handle without shelter. Four and a half weeks after planting, the shelter must be removed completely. Watering at this time must be reduced, because from excess water the roots can suffocate and rot. Wintering rooted cuttings are better tolerated in open ground.
Where is it better to plant lemongrass on the site?
The correct choice of a place for planting is of great importance, since not only the yield of magnolia vine, but also the decorative design of the garden, largely depends on this. The place should be open to the sun, but protected from cold and withering winds. It is good to place lemongrass on the south side of the buildings, but it is possible on the east or west side (so that the sun illuminates the plants for half a day). The best soil is loose, rich in humus, drained, with a reaction close to neutral. Therefore, the area intended for planting lemongrass must be thoroughly prepared and deeply cultivated. Heavy, dense, clay soil should be covered with sand and organic fertilizers, peaty and sandy soil with clay and organic fertilizers, acidic - with lime. Plots with a high level of groundwater must be raised or planted on the shafts of trees or other elevations.
How to prepare the seat?
One plant can be planted in a pit, but lemongrass alone is not recommended.It is better to plant several plants in a trench with a width of 50 cm and a depth of not more than 60 cm. In the middle of it at a distance of 1.5 m from each other, metal poles must be driven in to secure the trellis. At the bottom you need to lay drainage material (crushed stone, gravel, slag, broken brick, construction debris) with a layer of 30 cm and slightly compacted, then fertilized soil. The latter should be preliminarily prepared: add to the excavated cultivated layer (at 1m2): rotted manure (60-70 kg), sand (three or four buckets), lime (500 g), phosphorus (150 g d.v.), nitrogen (40-50 g d.v.). The soil with fertilizers must be thoroughly mixed and compacted in a trench. At each seat (after 1 m), you need to pour a cone-shaped tubercle from fertile soil and slightly compact it.
How to plant lemongrass?
When planting, the strongest shoot of the seedling should be cut into three buds from which the plant will be formed, weak shoots must be cut into a ring, the roots should be shortened by 20-25 cm. The root system of seedlings should be treated with clay mash, adding a mullein (1 l bucket). When planting, the seedling must be placed on a cone-shaped tubercle, spread the roots in all directions and sprinkle with soil. The last one is slightly condensed, water abundantly and mulch.
When is it better to plant seedlings in a permanent place?
It is best to plant them immediately in a permanent place. If seedlings are purchased in the fall, then it is necessary to plant at this time. Digging for the winter worsens survival during spring planting.
How to care for lemongrass?
In the first two years, the root system is developing intensively. It is fibrous and is located at a depth of 8-10 cm. Therefore, loosening the soil is deeply undesirable, and mineral and organic fertilizers must be applied superficially in the form of mulch. In the third year, fairly good growth shoots are formed, which must be directed upward and temporarily tied with twine. They themselves curl around the support. The soil should be weeded and the mulch loosened to a depth of 2-3 cm. Mineral fertilizers, starting from the third year of planting, must be applied in the form of three times top dressing during the growing season. In the spring, before the buds open, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be added (40 g a.e. for 1 m2), after flowering during the period of active growth of the ovary - nitrogen (20 g), potassium and phosphorus (15 g each), after harvesting in September - phosphorus and potassium (30 g d. per 1 m2) Fertilizers must be covered with a rake in the mulch and watered abundantly.
In what form is lemongrass cultivated?
The form of growing lemongrass affects not only the crop, but also the completeness of the brushes. Of the two forms - bushy and vertical (on the trellis) - the latter is better. At the same time, lianas are well lit, and conditions for pollinating flowers by insects are also improving. As a result, the length of the brush, the number of fruits and their mass increase. The average weight of one brush is 3.5 g, on the trellis - 9.8 g. In addition, with a vertical culture, the plant's lifespan increases, vines develop better, it becomes easier to form a crown, more female flowers are formed.
What supports can be used for lemongrass?
The same as for actinidia.
Does lemongrass grow without support?
Yes. But it will bear fruit later and worse. To accelerate the entry into the fruiting season, the vine should be lifted to the support as soon as possible.
What year does lemongrass enter fruiting?
Vegetatively propagated plants - after three to four years, grown from seeds - after five to six years.
Do plants need to be cut and shaped?
With good care during the fruiting period, the vines intensively branch, due to which the crown thickens and the yield decreases. At the same time, a large number of root shoots are formed. Therefore, pruning and forming vines is necessary. To reduce thickening in the crown, in late autumn (after leaf fall), dried, weak and excess shoots should be cut. You can shorten too much growth for a given year. With a large thickening on the trellis, young growing shoots must be shortened in the summer (usually 10-12 buds), as well as annually cut all root shoots, replace old vines with young ones. The cutting of old vines does not depend on age, but on the bareness and remoteness of their crowns from the ground.
What is the decorative magnolia vine?
It is a fast-growing liana with elegant and lush green foliage, white, pleasantly smelling beautiful flowers in spring and bright red fruits in autumn. In summer it creates a pleasant shadow and coolness at arches, trellises, pergolas, arbors, trellises, etc. It deserves widespread use in garden areas.
How to collect the fruits of lemongrass?
Harvesting is necessary when full ripeness is reached (for the middle lane - in September-October). Brushes must be torn off or cut off at the base. Fruits should not be folded in a metal dish, since harmful compounds form in the juice during oxidation. With good care on fertile soil, from one plant you can get 4 kg of fruits, but most often - about 0.7-1 kg.
Are all biologically active substances preserved when growing lemongrass in the middle lane?
Yes, all biologically active substances are preserved when growing lemongrass in the middle lane
How to dry the fruits?
Slightly dried fruits must be sorted out, impurities and stalks removed, spread in a thin layer and dried in an oven at a temperature not exceeding 60–70 ° С (otherwise they turn black). Dried fruits should be hard, coarse, irregular, dark red or almost black, have a spicy, bitter-acid, slightly irritating taste and a slightly aromatic odor. Drying whole juicy fruits at room temperature is ineffective, as they become moldy.
How to dry leaves and young shoots?
The optimal time for harvesting leaves and young shoots is the beginning of August. They should be chopped with a secateurs into parts up to 2-3 cm, spread out with a thin layer and dried in the shade with natural ventilation, mixing regularly. Store in paper bags.
What can be prepared from the fruits of lemongrass at home?
Mostly fruits are used for drying. From lemongrass juice you can make kvass, syrups, jelly, jam, marmalade, etc. Processing products acquire a good color and have the aroma and taste of fresh lemon.
Are there diseases and pests on schisandra?
In natural conditions exist. On lemongrass, grown in the middle lane, they have not yet been noticed.