Liviston palm at home
To the clan of Liviston (Livistona) includes about 30 species of plants of the palm family. The plant got its name in honor of Patrick Murray, Lord of Livingston (1632-1671), who gathered in his garden over a thousand different plants. Livistons are widespread in the tropics and subtropics in South and Southeast Asia, on the islands of the Malay archipelago, on the island of New Guinea, in Polynesia and Eastern Australia.
Description of palm tree livistona
Livistons in nature are large palm trees up to 20-25 m tall. The trunk is in scars and is covered with sheaths of petioles of leaves, on top - with a large crown of leaves. The leaves are fan-shaped, roundish, dissected to the middle or deeper, with radially folded lobes. Petiole is strong, concave-convex in cross section, sharp along the edges and with spikes at the end, with a heart-shaped tongue (anterior crest). Petiole is elongated in the leaf blade in the form of a rod 5-20 cm long. The inflorescence is axillary. Liviston cleans the air well.
As indoor plants, livistons became widespread. In spacious rooms, livistons do not form a trunk, growing due to many leaves.
With good care, Liviston gives 3 new leaves per year. However, the leaf tops easily dry in liviston, and in the future, the drying process extends to a considerable depth, which greatly reduces the value of the plants. This drawback can be eliminated by proper care: keeping plants at a temperature of 16-18 ° C, frequent washing and regular spraying of leaves with water.
Features of palm care Liviston at home
Temperature: In the summer, it is moderate, and the optimum winter temperature for the palm of Liviston is 14-16 ° С, at least 10 ° С.
Lighting: Very bright place, useful direct sun. For uniform development of the crown, the palm of Liviston is periodically rotated by different sides to the light. In summer, if possible, a palm tree is taken out to the garden; a place protected from the wind is chosen.
Watering: Watering liviston should be uniform, plentiful in summer, moderate in winter. If the plant is overdried, the leaves wilt and spots appear on them.
Top dressing should be carried out from April to September weekly, because the palm of Liviston quickly expends nutrients during the growth period. With a lack of nutrients, a slowdown in plant growth and yellowing of the leaves are observed.
Air humidity: Liviston loves regular, better spraying twice a day, and it’s also useful to shower occasionally.
Transfer: Liviston is transplanted only when the roots fill the entire pot or tub and begin to crawl out of the container - after 3-4 years. When transplanting, some of the roots forming the felt layer are cut with a sharp knife to fit the plant in a new pot. Pot drainage should be very good. Soil - 2 parts of light clay-soddy soil, 2 parts of humus-leaf, 1 part of peat, 1 part of rotted manure, 1 part of sand and some charcoal.
Breeding: Liviston seeds multiply quite easily, they are sown in February-March. Liviston sprouts from seeds for about three months, and by the age of three it acquires a completely decorative appearance. Liviston seeds are planted to a depth of about 1 cm in moist, warm ground, covered with glass or polyethylene. Regularly ventilate. Fortified seedlings are planted in separate pots.
Adult instances of livistons growing in the form of a bush form offspring that can be separated during transplantation, very carefully handling the roots.
Possible difficulties in growing livistona:
- With a lack of moisture, overdrying of the soil and at too low a temperature the leaves wither and wilt.
- If the air is too dry, the tips of the palm leaves become dry.
Liviston is damaged: mealybug, spider mite, scale insect, whitefly.
Liviston palm cultivation at home
Livistons love bright diffused light, carry a certain amount of direct sunlight. Suitable for cultivation at the western and eastern windows. At the windows of the southern direction in the summer, it is necessary to provide the plant with protection from the midday sun. In winter, palm trees are placed in the most lit places. For a uniform growth of the crown, it is advisable to regularly turn the other side to the light. Liviston is the most shade-tolerant Chinese.
Since May, Liviston can be exposed to the open air, in a place where protection from direct midday sun is provided. The plant should be accustomed to a new level of illumination gradually.
The optimum temperature for livistona is 16-20 ° C. In the fall it is advisable to lower the temperature of the content. Wintering is preferable to cool - 14-16 ° C, not lower than 10 ° C. The room where liviston grows should be regularly ventilated.
In summer, livistons are watered abundantly, as the top layer of the substrate dries, warm, settled water (at least 30 ° C), in June-August (in the north and in the middle zone of Russia), morning watering with warm water in the arrow of the plant is recommended. After watering, it is advisable to drain the water from the pallet after 2 hours. Since autumn, watering is reduced by livistons. In winter, watered sparingly, as the top layer of the substrate dries in a pot (tub), preventing the earthen coma from drying out.
Liviston requires high humidity. Regular spraying, washing the leaves with warm, soft, settled water is necessary. In winter, spraying should be done less frequently.
Livistones are fed with organic fertilizers once a decade, from May-June to September; in winter - once a month. With good growth, plants in the rooms each year give an average of 3 new leaves.
In order to avoid progressive drying of the leaves, livistones cut off the top of the lobes of the leaf plate, drying out so much that the decorative effect of the plant is greatly reduced. Do not rush to remove individual drying leaves. Only those leaves that are completely dry must be removed. When removing leaves that have just begun to dry, or in which half of the plate has dried, the drying process of the next next sheet is accelerated.
The plants are transplanted in the spring - in April-May. Young plants are transplanted annually, of middle age - once every 2-3 years, adults - once every 5 years. Livistons are transplanted only if the roots of the palm fill the entire volume of the pot.
The substrate for transplantation is taken neutral or slightly acidic, of the following composition: for young plants - compost soil - 1 hour, light turf - 1 hour, leaf - 1 hour, sand 1 hour; for adults - heavy turf - 1 hour, humus or greenhouse - 1 hour, light turf - 1 hour, sand - 1 hour, compost - 1 hour. You can use a ready-made substrate for palm trees. At the bottom of the transplant containers provide a good drainage layer.
Types of palm trees livistona
Liviston is Chinese (Livistona chinensis) The birthplace of the species is South China. The trunk is 10-12 m tall and 40-50 cm in diameter, at the bottom with a serrated surface, at the top covered with the remains of dead leaves and fibers. Fan leaves, split up to half the length into folded segments (50-60, up to 80), at the end deeply incised, sharply tapering, drooping.
Petiole 1-1.5 m long, wide, up to 10 cm wide, tapering upward to 3.5-4 cm, in the lower third or to the middle along the edges with pointed, short straight spikes protruding into the sheet plate up to 20 cm long; the tongue is raised, with parchment-like edges, up to 1 cm wide. The axillary inflorescence is up to 1.2 m long. Suitable for moderately warm rooms.
Livistona Rotundifolia (Livistona rotundifolia) It grows in the coastal zone on sandy soils on the island of Java and the Moluccas. The trunk is 10-12 (up to 14) m high and 15-17 cm in diameter. The leaves are fan-shaped, rounded, 1-1.5 m in diameter, dissected by 2/3 of the length into folded lobes, extending around evenly from the upper part of the petiole, green, glossy. Petiole 1.5 m long, densely covered with spikes along the edges from the base to about 1/3 of the length. The axillary inflorescence, 1-1.5 m long, red. The flowers are yellow.
Highly decorative plant, suitable for moderately warm rooms.
Liviston South (Livistona australis) Grows in subtropical rainforests in Eastern Australia, in the south reaches Melbourne. The columnar trunk, up to 25 m tall and 30-40 cm in diameter, thickened at the base, covered with the remains of leaf sheaths and scars (traces of fallen leaves).
Fan leaves, 1.5-2 m in diameter, radially folded, split into lobes (up to 60 or more), dark green, glossy. The ends of the shares are two-notched. Petiole 1.5-2 m long, with sharp, sharp, almost brown spikes at the edges. The inflorescence is axillary, branched, up to 1.2-1.3 m long. Valuable ornamental plant. It is cultivated in semi-warm greenhouses, grows well in rooms.