How to grow large onion bulbs?
Growing onions to obtain the head (bulbs) in the summer cottages of experienced gardeners does not cause difficulties. However, in order to get large (200-400 g) bulbs, you must strictly adhere to the agricultural cultivation technique, which has its own characteristics. We will tell about how to ensure a good harvest of large bulbs - what planting material to use, how to care for planting onions, etc., in the article.
- General approaches to obtaining healthy, quality onion heads
- Bulb varieties and size
- Seeding and storage of seed
- Onion growing technology
- Onion Harvesting
General approaches to obtaining healthy, quality onion heads
Large onions begin with seeds. Onions on the bulb (head) can be grown through seeds (chernushka), sowing (arbazheyka) and seedlings. On a garden wedge of a summer cottage for growing large onion bulbs for food and winter storage, it is more practical to grow a crop from the north.
To get a crop of large heads (up to 200-400 g) of onions, several conditions are necessary:
- selection of a zoned variety with a large onion;
- proper storage of seed;
- Compliance with the requirements of agricultural cultivation.
Bulb varieties and size
Want to get a large onion? Be attentive to the planted varieties. Onion is a long day plant and reacts painfully to the ratio of the dark and light period of the day. Onions have a very interesting varietal feature of the reaction to the length of daylight. Culture tolerates climate change more easily than lack of daylight.
Southern varieties of onions are genetically predisposed to grow and form a storage organ (bulb) as daylight approaches a maximum of 13-15 hours. The approach of the maximum in the south takes a long period, and the zoned variety has time to grow a large vegetative mass, including a large storage organ.
If the southern variety of onions is planted in the northern region, where daylight in the summer season very quickly reaches a maximum of 15-18 hours, the plants will tend to finish the vegetation as soon as possible and form the bulbs. The formation of a storage organ (bulb) means the end of development, and retirement. Bulbs do not have time to gain weight and remain small.
Northern varieties of onions, planted in the south, will constantly form a leaf mass in anticipation of the onset of the longest day at 15-18 hours. And since in the south the maximum length of daylight ends at the 15 hour mark, the culture continues to increase leaf mass, but does not form the bulb at all. The variety does not have enough daylight to go to the next phase of development.
Therefore, dear readers, wishing to get a large bulb of onion, be sure to consider the reaction of the culture to photoperiodicity. Grow southern varieties of onions in the south, and northern varieties in the north. Otherwise, the onion heads will be small, unripe or will not be formed at all. In this case, a large-headed, but not zoned variety, and the fulfillment of all the requirements of agricultural technology will not ensure the receipt of a large bulb.
Seeding and storage of seed
It is possible to get a high yield of large onion bulbs only when sowing with high-quality seed, which can be purchased at the store or grown independently and properly stored until planting in the ground.
When self-harvesting seed, it is necessary after harvesting and drying the bulb crop to divide them into fractions:
- Oatmeal, 0.5-0.7 cm in diameter;
- I group, 0.8-1.5 cm in diameter;
- II group, 1.5-2.2 cm in diameter.
The best for sowing is considered an arbazheyka of I and II groups.
Before planting, the selected seeds are stored in a cool room at a temperature of 0 ... + 2 ° C and not higher, and in a warm room at + 17 ... + 18 ° C (away from heating batteries).
If the temperature regime was violated and the arbazheika was stored at home at a temperature of + 2 ... + 15 ° C, there is no point in hoping for a quality crop of onions. During spring planting in open ground, such onion sets will begin to shoot. A thick hollow peduncle will select part of the nutrients, the onion bulb will be shallow. In addition, the base of the peduncle in the bulb will serve as a source of decay in the autumn-winter period.
Thus, the obligatory conditions for obtaining a crop of large onions are the variety and quality of planting material.
Onion growing technology
Good predecessors for onions in the cultural turnover are tomatoes, cucumbers, early and middle potatoes, zucchini, legumes, early cabbage. Onions go well with carrots, beets, radishes, greens, which allows you to use these crops with compactors in combined beds.
Planting onions can be carried out in late autumn or early spring. In practice, spring planting of onions is preferable. Climatic cataclysms of recent years can provoke early seedlings and their death during return frosts, and cause partial sowing of the seeds during the winter. The stress state of the plants will cause the formation of small bulbs.
Depending on weather conditions and warming up the soil, the arbazheika is sown in warm regions in the last decade of March – early April, in the colder (middle lane) in the last decade of April – early May. In the northern regions after passing frosts and warming up the soil to + 6 ... + 10 ° С.
The optimum temperature of the soil for sowing sowing is + 10 ... + 12 ° C, and air + 3 ... + 5 ° C.
Onion seedlings will appear on the 5th – 6th day. If you plant sowing in unheated soil, it will start to shoot. If you are late for planting, then, once in a dry, overheated soil, the onion will slow down its development and will not form a large onion. That is, to obtain a large bulb of onion, it is very important to maintain the timing of planting seeds.
Onion seedlings are cold-tolerant and easily tolerate short-term freezing up to -3 ° C. But during the autumn planting and the onset of spring return frosts, the grown plants with a decrease in temperature of -3 ... -5 ° C stop growth and development, which subsequently affects the size of the bulbs.
Preparation of seed for planting:
- Select only absolutely healthy onion sets for planting;
- Dry ends at the top of the set are cut carefully with scissors;
- To protect the set from fungal infections, be sure to disinfect with hot water, potassium permanganate solution, and other known methods. Disinfected onions at room temperature are dried to flow. Before planting, it is stored in a moist burlap.
- The next day, planted in prepared soil
Onions cannot tolerate acidified soils and fresh organic matter. Therefore, when growing in a culture circulation, organics and deoxidants are added 2-3 years before the onions are planted under previous crops. Onions do not like liming of the soil, therefore, if necessary, deoxidation in the year of planting for the main tillage is made of 3-4 glasses of ash per square meter. m square.
For the normal growth and development of plants, the soil under onions should have a neutral reaction pH = 6.4-6.7 units, be moisture-absorbing, water-permeable, fertile.
Onions carry significant amounts of nutrients from the soil with the crop, but it does not need to be fed. Even supply of nutrients and moisture during the growing season will contribute to the continuous growth of the onion vegetative mass. On depleted and dense soils, from autumn, under the main digging of the soil for onions, the ripened crumbly humus is brought in no more than 1 / 3-1 / 2 buckets per square meter. m or seeded siderata.
Rye, oats, mustard, rapeseed are well loosened. On dense confluent soils, you can use mustard with legumes, clover, vetch-oat mixture. Mixed sideral cultures will not only spread the soil, but also saturate it with available nutrients.
From mineral fertilizers under onions make nitroammophosk 50-60 g / sq. m. or only phosphorus-potassium fat, respectively 25-30 and 15-25 g / sq. m, and in the spring under sowing, urea is added no more than 20-25 g / sq. m
If the soil is depleted and higher fertilizer rates are required, then it is better to add 2/3 of the dose in the fall, and apply the remainder in the spring before planting.
Arbazheika landing rules
Sowing is carried out in the prepared soil in a single row method or in 2–3 lower case ribbons. In the ribbon between the rows leave 8-12 cm and between the ribbons - 20-25 cm.
In the first method, the distance between the bulbs can be different:
- When planting "shoulder to shoulder", the planting density is high, since between the sets in the row the distance is 1.0-1.5 cm. With this method of planting, 2 thinning is carried out:
- at the first thinning, the distance is increased to 4 cm, and the young onion-feather is used as food;
- after 25-30 days, a second thinning is carried out, leaving a distance between young plants of 7-10 cm.
The second way of landing is ordinary. Sevc is planted at a distance in a row after 8-10 cm, between rows - 20 cm. Thinning is not carried out. Arbazheyka placed in the furrows vertically up to a depth of 4 cm, fall asleep on top of the soil by 2.0-2.5 cm and slightly compacted with a palm.
Onion care during the growing season
It is very important during the growing season to keep the soil moist, loose, without weeds. Weeds obscure the bulbous zone at the base of plants and cause the accumulation of fungal infections.
Mulching after irrigation of onions is necessary. The crust formed after irrigation causes uneven supply of moisture to the topsoil (sometimes dry, then wet), which reduces the possibility of forming a large bulb. Loosening is only superficial, in wide aisles. When loosening in a row, damage to superficially located roots negatively affects the growth of the bulb. Onions cannot be spud. On the contrary, during the growth of the bulb, the "fashionista" open their shoulders towards the sun. A significant role in the formation of large bulbs belongs to timely watering.
Watering and top dressing for onions in the first 2-3 months are especially important. Interruptions in the supply of nutrients and violation of the irrigation regime during this period lead to small heads of onions and a loss of taste.
Approximate watering frequency:
- The first month of watering is carried out 1 time per week with mandatory subsequent loosening and mulching of the crushed mulch. Under a large mulch, pests settle, a fungal infection accumulates. Small mulch protects the soil from drying out of the top layer and quickly decomposes under the influence of moisture. During this period, the soil during irrigation is soaked to 10 cm layer.
- In June, to the growth phase of the bulbs, the number of irrigations is reduced to a 10 day break, but the soil is soaked to 20-25 cm layer. So that there is no stagnation of water, irrigation is carried out by fine spraying.
- In July, irrigation is carried out once every 8-10 days as necessary (preventing the soil from drying out in the root layer).
- In the second half of July, the soil is only kept moist, and they are switching to "dry watering". The soil is loosened, mulched, and surely eliminated from weeds.
- 2-3 weeks prior to harvesting, watering is stopped and the shoulders of the bulbs are gently “exposed” from the ground. The procedure promotes the ripening of the bulb, especially the stem at the base. Unripe stems in winter are affected by fungal and bacterial rot.
- Watering with high pressure breaks the feather, causing interruptions in the flow of nutrients into the plant, weakens it. The plant gets sick.
- Do not water the onions with cold water. When watering with water below + 18 ° C, the culture becomes ill with powdery mildew.
- It is necessary to keep the plantings absolutely clean from weeds, not allowing them to grow above 5-8 cm.
- On the weedy, not weeded and improperly watered area, the root necks of the onions remain juicy, which sharply reduces the bulb retention.
The formation of large bulbs require a sufficiently large amount of nutrients. Their flow to the culture should be uniform, without hunger breaks and overfeeding. It is better to fertilize onions with nutrient solutions. Making dry dressings is not so effective.
The first feeding of onions
With a sufficient main dressing of the soil, the first top dressing of onions can be postponed to June, and if necessary, it is carried out after 2-3 weeks from germination. Thin light feathers are a signal for feeding.
For feeding in 10 l of warm water, a spoonful of ammonium nitrate or urea is bred. Contribute to the root for 10-12 linear meters. If the soil (for various reasons) was not sufficiently fertilized before planting, then the first fertilizing is best done with full fertilizer using nitroammophoska, Kemiru-lux, crystallin in the form of a solution (25-30 g / 10 l of water). After top dressing, plants must be washed with watering with a fine mesh nozzle.
Second feeding of onions
The second top dressing is carried out in the second decade of June with a solution of phosphorus-potassium fat. In 10 l of warm water, 20 and 10 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are dissolved and introduced under the root of the plants. During this period, instead of the phosphorus-potassium mixture, you can once again feed the plants with nitroammophos, increasing the concentration of the solution to 2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. Additionally, foliar top dressing with microelements or boron is carried out with the addition of an ash extract (0.5 l per 10 l of water).
Third onion dressing
The third top dressing is carried out if necessary, if the development of the bulb is slowed down. The third top dressing is carried out when the size of the bulb with a walnut is usually a superphosphate solution. 40 g of superphosphate are diluted in 10 l of water. The flow rate of the solution is approximately 5 l / sq. m landing area.
It should be noted that onions on fertile and well-fertilized soils with mineral fertilizers can not be fed with fertilizers, limited to top dressing with trace elements and an ash extract.
Protection of onions from diseases and pests
To protect onions from diseases and pests, plants are treated with biofungicides (from diseases) and bioinsecticides (from pests) as a preventive measure. The most common biofungicides are Planriz, Haupsin, Alirin-B, Trichodermin, Gliocladin.
For treatment from pests, “Aktofit”, “Aversectin-S”, “Bitoxibacillin”, “Verticillin”, “Bicol” are used. Processing solutions are best prepared in tank mixtures. The selection of biological products, their dosage and mixing should always be carried out according to the instructions. Onion treatments are carried out at least 3-5 times during the growing season in the morning. The final processing can be carried out 2-3 days before harvesting. Biological products are absolutely safe for people and animals.
Treatments begin at the first visible changes in the color of the pen or the condition of the plants.
The start of harvesting is determined by the condition of the aboveground mass of onions. Depending on the variety:
- plant leaves turn yellow
- lie down
- lose turgor, etc.
When harvesting, the onions are pulled out of the soil, left for 1-2 weeks under a canopy for final drying. Dried onions are sorted and dense onions with a dry root neck, covered with dry top scales, are laid for winter storage. Before laying in containers for storage, dried stems are cut 3-5 cm per stump or braided with pigtails and suspended in a dry, warm place.
Thus, growing onions with large onions requires careful implementation of agricultural practices, the main of which are:
- selection of a zoned variety;
- seed quality;
- timeliness of sowing;
- compliance with the rules of care, which include timely irrigation and top dressing, soil content in a wet, weed-free state, with optimal plant density.
High-quality fulfillment of agricultural technology requirements creates all the prerequisites for obtaining a high yield of large onions.