The best varieties of fruit crops for cold regions
The vagaries of the weather are disheartening inexperienced gardeners. In the beloved garden, apple trees die, for several years you can’t get a cherry crop, a healthy plum is an impossible dream. How to grow a garden that would not be afraid of winter and provide the hosts with fresh fruit for any weather changes?
Of course, a lot depends on the plant variety planted in your garden. The work of breeders, in the direction of adaptation of plants to the climatic conditions of specific regions, allowed expanding the list of varieties resistant to weather disasters, and at the same time promoting southern cultures in the middle and northern regions of Russia and the CIS countries. Gardens of cold regions replenished with new varieties of apple trees, pears, plums. Apricots and peaches moved beyond the warm south. Breeders are offering a growing variety of berry pickers.
It is understandable that the desire of gardeners in the northern regions to plant a limited list of frost-resistant crops on a limited area, the characteristics of which indicate that they tolerate frosts of -35 ..- 45 ° С. However, in home plantings, such frost-resistant crops do not always live up to the expectations of the owners and freeze out at relatively (for them) low frosts of -25 ..- 30 ° С. Why is this happening?
Frost and winter hardiness what is the difference?
Frost resistance determined by the ability of the variety and species of plants to withstand extreme negative temperatures during the winter period without damage.
Winter hardiness horticultural crops is determined by the plant's resistance to prolonged low temperatures during the rest period (“deep sleep”), including:
- to extreme cold snap in the middle and end of winter (return) frosts,
- to sudden drops in temperature in the autumn,
- to a sharp return of frost after the spring thaw.
Truly winter-hardy are only those varieties that are resistant to all temperature disasters in the autumn-winter-spring periods in a particular region, while the trees continue to function normally, and with minor frostbite, they are quickly restored.
For example, fruit crop varieties that calmly tolerate frosts of -35 ..- 45 ° C in cold regions, in the south and in the middle lane, with temporary thaws uncharacteristic for Siberia, can be severely frostbite.
Improper agricultural technology is one of the reasons for the freezing of fruit crops
It is impossible not to notice that one of the reasons for the freezing of frost-resistant crops is a violation of the requirements for agricultural practices of crop cultivation. It is not enough to purchase frost-resistant varieties. They must be correctly placed in the garden, taking into account all territorial and biological requirements.
- Provide each tree with a sufficient spacing in the row and row spacing. Do not thicken plantings, especially crops that require full sunlight.
- Do not plant crops nearby whose neighborhood will oppress each other's root systems.
- Crops must be provided with a supply of moisture in the second half of the summer period. After harvesting in the absence of rain, carry out pre-winter watering of garden crops.
- When applying fertilizer in autumn, eliminate or significantly limit nitrogen fertilizer.
The best frost-resistant varieties of popular fruit crops for various regions
Of course, this list of varieties includes the most familiar, with established qualities. But each gardener in the catalogs can choose for his garden varieties of crops that he personally liked. The only condition is that the variety of culture must be selected according to the sum of the indicators of resistance to weather disasters.
For a list of frost-resistant varieties of popular fruit crops for cold regions, see the next page.