Ivy - domestic creepers
Ivy is one of the most common plants among indoor flower lovers. He is very rich in diverse forms and varieties and can satisfy the taste of even a very picky grower. Ivy is easy to breed. The people sometimes call him “loach”, probably for his twisted and clinging to the support branches. In the room, such instances can grow that with their whips cover not only the wall, but also the ceiling of the room. Therefore, he needs support: either vertical in the form of a stick or tube with moss, or stretched cords. About all the details of growing ivy at room conditions, we will tell in this article.
- Ivy - plant description
- How to care for ivy?
- Ivy breeding
- Ivy transplant
- Diseases and pests of ivy
- Useful properties of ivy
Ivy - plant description
Ivy, the Latin name is Hedera, folk - “crechetan”, “serpentine”, “shalenets”, “loach”. Genus of plants of the Araliaceae family. The Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language says that the word "ivy" is usually compared with "spit", "spit", due to the unpleasant taste of the plant.
Ivy - creeping shrubs clinging with their subordinate roots to walls, tree trunks, etc. The stems carry dense leaves of two genera: on non-flowering branches - dark green, angular-lobed, and on flowering branches - light green, whole, lanceolate, oblong or ovoid. There are no stipules.
Relatively small ivy flowers are collected at the top of the branches in shields, heads or brushes. The flower either does not have a bract, or with a very small bract. Calyx barely developed, integral or five-toothed. The corolla is five-petalled, with a folding bud. Five stamens, pistil with lower, lower, or upper five-nest ovary, with a short column surrounded by a fleshy disc at the base. The fruit is a black or yellowish berry. Seed with an elongated embryo in a wrinkled-folded protein.
How to care for ivy?
Watering. In summer, the plant is watered abundantly, but too much watering can lead to yellowing of ivy leaves. In winter, less water is required for irrigation, but it is not worth bringing an earthen lump to dryness.
Topping. From time to time, pinch the ends of the ivy stalks so that the lateral shoots grow. Cut off tops are used as cuttings. Be sure to remove the green shoots that sometimes appear on plants with variegated leaves.
Temperature. Moderate or cool, at night no more than 16 ° C, winter minimum recommended 12 ° C. In warm and especially dry rooms, ivy is often affected by scabies. However, with regular spraying, it overwinter well at normal room temperature.
Lighting. Ivy does not tolerate direct sunlight, but (especially variegated forms) prefers a well-lit place, and do not like changes in location relative to the light source. Ivy green varieties can be attributed to shade-tolerant, but still it is desirable to provide them with a bright place. In winter, they need a brighter location than in summer.
Fertilizer. From March to August they feed with complex fertilizer for decorative and deciduous houseplants. Top dressing is carried out every two weeks. Ivy is well related to feeding mullein infusion. However, such frequent top dressing leads to the fact that their leaves become very large and plants lose their decorative appeal.
Air humidity: Ivy loves humid air. It requires frequent spraying in the summer, as well as in the winter, if it is in a warm room. If possible, then periodically arrange for him to wash in the shower.
Ivy is transplanted in the spring: young plants - annually, adults - a year later in larger diameter pots.
Ivy, a plant that multiplies efficiently in the following ways:
Propagation by cuttings
Ivy, usually propagated by cuttings, which are planted in pots with a diameter of 7 cm, 2-3 in each and cover with a film. A mixture of earth is prepared for them from deciduous land and sand. Better rooted cuttings with aerial roots. Garden forms with variegated leaves take root much worse.
Ivy can be propagated by whole shoots. An shoot with 8-10 leaves is laid on the sand, pressing into it so that the leaves remain on the surface. On the tenth day, underground roots form on the stem near the kidneys from aerial roots. After this, the shoot is taken out of the sand and cut so that the cuttings are with one leaf and roots. Sometimes it’s enough that we cut off in spring or summer the shoot with additional roots about 10 cm long. Then we plant it at home or on the street, and it quickly takes root.
It is not necessary to keep the stalk in water until the roots appear. It should be treated with root hormone powder. In some cases, cuttings without additional roots will take root for a little longer - this is perhaps the only small drawback of ivy.
Propagation by layering
There is another way to reproduce ivy - layering. The long lash shoots are dug up, having previously made incisions on them from the lower side, and fix them in the ground with the help of U-shaped staples. After the new plants take root, they are carefully separated and transplanted.
Removing water from the soil with dissolved beneficial elements in the roots, the plants gradually deplete the soil. To improve the nutrition of ivies, they are periodically transplanted into new land of the same composition or changed in case of urgent need. A plant should be transplanted if it does not give growth and leaves fade, and also when its roots are braided by an entire earthen lump or small roots form a “felt”.
Before transplanting, the flowerpot is abundantly watered to wet the entire earthen lump. By shaking the plant along with a lump from the pot, determine the need for transplantation. If you still do not need to transplant ivy, then do a transshipment: leave the lump intact, transfer the plant to a slightly larger pot (2-3 cm) and add the earth. Transshipment can also be carried out during flowering, while growth retardation in the flower will not occur.
An ivy transplant is usually performed in the spring - in March or April. The first signs of a transplant need are root sprouting through drainage holes and the slow development of the plant.
A drainage is placed at the bottom of the pot so that water can freely seep through the soil and air can easily penetrate the roots. A layer of chopped peat moss would be good to put on this layer. This prevents the drainage hole at the bottom of the pot from clogging the ground.
When transplanting, it is very important that the ivy root neck is not covered with soil, but also does not protrude from the ground, and that there are no voids in the soil. After transplanting or transshipment, the earth around the trunk is squeezed with a stick or index finger and the sides for watering are left free. Then the plant is watered, sprayed and placed in a warm room, protected from drafts and direct sunlight.
Diseases and pests of ivy
Common spider mite
Insects can be seen on the underside of young leaves or on the tips of shoots. The upper side of the affected leaves is covered with yellowish spots and dots, and with severe damage between the leaves and stems, a thin white spider web forms. Damaged leaves become like marble, turn yellow and fall prematurely.
Red spider mite
The mite bites into the skin of the stem, damaging it, leaving uneven gray-brown spots. It reproduces very quickly, actively affecting ivy.
Female worms lay their eggs in white cotton-like fluffy discharge of leaves along the veins. Insects can secrete a sticky liquid - a pad on which a sooty fungus develops that pollutes plants. Sucking the juices of young shoots, leaves, worms strongly inhibit plant growth.
Scaffolds and false shields
They are kept on the lower and upper side of leaves, branches and trunks of plants. Only young larvae settle on the plant, sticking to its various parts. With a strong infection, the leaves (along the veins) and trunks of plants are covered, as it were, with plaque formed from a large accumulation of scutes. In damaged plants, growth and development are delayed; the leaves turn yellow and fall off before the time. Scabies and false scabs secrete a sticky liquid - a pad, contributing to the appearance and development of soot fungus, which further worsens the condition and development of the plant.
It is held in groups on the underside of the leaf, especially along the veins. Eggs are laid in leaf tissue. Brown-brown appear on the damaged leaves of the lower side, and whitish spots on the upper side. With a strong infection, the leaves turn yellow, dry and fall off. The greatest harm these insects bring in the summer, in hot weather.
Aphids are especially active in plants in spring and summer. They live in groups on the underside of leaves, on young shoots, feeding on plant juices. Winged aphids can fly from one flower to another, infecting them all. In plants damaged by aphids, the leaves turn yellow and curl.
Useful properties of ivy
The plant has an antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory effect. It is used as an astringent, laxative, vomiting agent, for polyps, sclerosis. Alcoholic extract from fruits helps to reduce pressure, is used to reduce warts and wen. Decoctions of leaves are effective for coughing and headache, have a diaphoretic effect.
The hemolytic properties of ivy preparations allow it to be used to maintain vascular tone. An infusion of ivy leaves is used for rheumatism, gout, articular arthritis and salt deposition. Boils of the roots are treated with boils, burns, used for scabies, pediculosis, fungal infections of the scalp. Ivy is included in the collection of herbs for kidney stones and the bladder. This is a very useful indoor plant - ivy cleans the air of formaldehydes, trichlorethylene, xylene, benzene.
There are many folk remedies using this plant, although its fruits are considered poisonous, despite this, side effects in normal dosages should not be feared.